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A guide to custom essay writing


custom essays



Punctuation and Capitalization

Acronyms and Initialisms

Units of Measurement

Personal Names and Titles

Company Names

Other Terms When in Parentheses, Tabular Material, or Documentation



Personal names should generally not be abbreviated.

Spell out an academic, civil, religious, or military title when it does not precede a proper name.

When preceding a name, some (but not all) titles are customarily abbreviated. (See also Ms./Miss/Mrs.)

Dr. Smith, Mr. Mills, Ms. Kalz

An abbreviation of a title may follow the name; however, it should not duplicate a title before the name.

When addressing letters and including names in other documents, normally spell out titles that precede a name (exceptions: Mi:, Mrs., Ms., Dr.):

Professor Charles Matlin

Captain Juan Ramirez

The Honorable Mary J. Holt

The Reverend James Macintosh

The following list gives common abbreviations for personal and professional titles. Where alternative forms are given with a / between them, the first is the one recommended by the Modern Language Association of America (MLA).

Atty Attorney

BA/B.A. Bachelor of Arts

BS/B.S. Bachelor of Science

Capt. Captain

Col. Colonel

CPA/C.P.A. Certified Public Accountant

DA/D.A. Doctor of Arts

DD/D.D. Doctor of Divinity

DDS/D.D.S. Doctor of Dental Science (or Surgery)

Dir. Director

Dr. Doctor (used with any doctors degree)

Drs. Plural of Dr.

EdD/Ed.D. Doctor of Education

Esq. Esquire (used after a lawyers name)

Hon. Honorable

JD/J.D. Doctor of Law (Latin Juris Doctor)

Jr. Junior (spelled out only in formal contexts, such as formal invitations)

LLB/LL.B. Bachelor ol Laws

LLD/LL.D. Doctor of Laws

Lt. Lieutenant

MA/M.A. Master of Arts

MBA/M.B.A. Master ol Business Administration

MD/M.D. Doctor of Medicine (Latin Medicinae Doctor)

Messrs. Plural of Mr. (French Messieurs)

Mmes. Plural of Mrs. (French Mesdames)

Mr. Mister (spelled out only in formal contexts, such as formal invitations)

Mrs. Married woman (abbreviation lor Mistress)

Ms. Woman of unspecified marital status

MS/M.S. Master of Science

Msgr. Monsignor

PhD/Ph.D. Doctor of Philosophy

Prof. Professor

Rep. Representative

Rev. Reverend

RN/R.N. Registered Nurse

Sen. Senator

Sgt. Sergeant

Sr. Senior (spelled out only in formal contexts, such as formal invitations)

St. Saint


Many companies include in their names such terms as Brothers, incorporated, Corporation, and Company. If these terms appear as abbreviations in the official company names, use the abbreviated forms: Bros., Inc., Corp., and Co. If such terms are not abbreviated in the official names, spell them out.

Similarly, use the ampersand (&) only if it appears in the official company name. (Note: The ampersand is not used in MLA style.)

Only when space is limited should you abbreviate titles of organizational units such as Department (Dept.) and Division (Div.).


When used within regular text, most words should be spelled out. However, the following abbreviations may be used to conserve space in parentheses, tabular material, or documentation.

abbr. abbreviation

acad. academy

adapt. adapted by, adaptation

anon. anonymous

app. appendix

assn. association

assoc. associate, associated

attnb. attributed to

aux. auxiliary

b. born

bk. or bks. book or books

c., ca. around this date (Latin circa)

cf. compare (Latin confer)

ch. or chs. chapter or chapters

col. column

comp. compiled by

cond. conducted by, conductor

contd. continued

d. died

dept. department

div. division

ed.; eds. editor, edited by, edition; editors, editions

e.g. for example (Latin exempli gratia)

e-mail (E-mail) electronic mail

esp. especially

et al. and others (Latin et alii}

etc. and so forth (Latin et cetera)

ex. example

fig. figure

fr. from

fwd. foreword, foreword by

govt. government

hist. history, historian, historical

i.e. that is (Latin id est)

illus. illustrated by, illustrator, illustration

inc. incorporated, including

insl. institution

mil. international

introd. introduced (or introduction) by

irreg. irregular

misc. miscellaneous

ms. or mss. manuscript or manuscripts

narr. narrator, narrated by

natl. national

NB/N.B. take note (Latin nota bene)

n.d. no publication date

no. number

n. pag. no pagination

ong. original, originally

p. or pp. page or pages

par. paragraph

PS/PS. postscript

pseud. pseudonym

pub., publ. published by, publisher, publication

qtd. quoted

reg. registered, regular

rept. reported, reported by

rev, revised by, revision, review

rpt. reprint, reprinted by

sec., sect. section

soc. society

supp. or supps. supplement or supplements

trans. translator, translated by

vol. or vols. volume or volumes

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