It is essential to note that nanotechnology is an area of science that is devoted to control and manipulation of matter at a scale smaller than a micrometer, for example, the level of atomsand molecules (nano). The most common is the fact that this manipulation occurs “in a range of one to one hundred nanometers”, according to official data. Nano indicates a measure, not an object, so that nanotechnology is a field characterized by essentially multidisciplinary and cohesive by the scale of the material.
According to Neuroscience nanotechnoolgy: progress, opportunities and challenges by Silvia, Nature Reviews, “Nanotechnologies are technologies that use engineered materials or devices with the smallest functional organization on the nanometre scale (that is, one billionth of a metre) in at least one dimension, typically ranging from 1 to ~100 nanometres. This implies that some aspect of the material or device can be manipulated and controlled by physical and/or chemical means at nanometre resolutions, which results in functional properties that are unique to the engineered technology and not shown by its constituent elements.
The challenges associated with nanotechnology applications in neuroscience are numerous, but the impact it can have on understanding how the nervous system works, how it fails in disease and how we can intervene at a molecular level is significant”.
Nanotechnology is the study, design, creation, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials, functional devices and systems through control of matter at the nano scale, and the exploitation of phenomena and properties of matter at the nano scale. When handling the matter so tiny on the scale of atoms and molecules, and demonstrate phenomena entirely new properties. Therefore, scientists use nanotechnology to create materials, devices and new systems and inexpensive with unique properties. Nanotechnology promises more efficient and cutting-edge solutions to environmental problems, and many others faced by humanity.
As a Nobel Prize winner for Physics (1965), Richard Feynman was the first to refer to the potential of nanoscience and nanotechnology in the famous speech at Caltech (California Institute of Technology) on December 29, 1959 entitled in the background there is plenty of room (There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom).
Other people in this area were Rosalind Franklin, James Dewey Watson and Francis Crick who suggested that DNA was the main molecule playing a key role in regulating all body processes and hence took the importance of the molecules as determinants processes of life. That could be used to solve many problems of humanity, but also could create powerful weapons.
But these insights were beyond and that this might change the structure of molecules such as polymers or plastics of today are in our homes. But I must say that this type of molecules they can be considered “great”. With these advances the man had a great fascination for further research more about these molecules, no longer in the field of inert materials, but the search for organic molecules in our body.
Today medicine is more interested in research in the microscopic world and in it are possibly structural abnormalities that cause disease, and it must be said of the branches of medicine have left most beneficial as is microbiology immunology, physiology, in short, almost all branches of medicine. With all these advances there have been created new science, for example, genetic engineering is discussed today due to effects such as cloning or improved species.
Some developing countries are already spending significant resources to nanotechnology research. Nanomedicine is an area that can contribute to more sustainable development in the Third World, providing new methods of diagnosis and screening of diseases, improved systems for drug delivery and tools for monitoring of some biological parameters. Currently, about 40 laboratories worldwide channel large amounts of money for research in nanotechnology. About 300 companies have the term “nano” in their name.
Some of the computer world giants like IBM, Hewlett-Packard (“HP”) NEC and Intel are investing millions of dollars a year on the subject. Governments called First World has also taken the issue seriously, with clear leadership from the U.S. government, which this year has allocated $ 570 million to its National Nanotechnology Initiative.