Beginning on a separate page at the end of your paper, list in alphabetical order all the references you cite and give full publishing information for them. Title the list References and center this heading an inch from the top of the page. Double-space both within and between entries, and indent the first line five to seven spaces. Note, however, that some instructors may prefer a hanging indentation (that is, the first line flush with the left margin, and the second and subsequent lines indented), which is the style used in printed APA publications.
Alphabetize the reference list according to the last name of the authors or the first important word in the title of works without a listed author. Entries for an author writing alone precede entries in which that author has coauthors. Arrange works by the same author (or authors) according to the publication date, starting with the earliest. If two or more works by the same author were published in the same year, arrange them alphabetically by the first main word in the title and add “a” after the year of the first one, “b” after the year of the second one, and so on. Use both the year and the letter in the in-text citation.
Book entries have four parts, and each one ends with a period. The first part is the author’s name—with the last name first and a comma separating it from the initial of the first name. The second part is the year of publication, which is enclosed in parentheses. The third part is the title and the subtitle, which are italicized or underlined (underlining is preferred for manuscripts submitted to APA for publication); only proper nouns and the first letter of the title and subtitle are capitalized. The fourth part of a book entry is the place of publication and the name of the publisher (in as brief a form as is intelligible). Brochures and pamphlets use the same format, with a descriptive label, such as “Brochure,” added in brackets after the title.
Book with one author
Give the author’s first initial, not the full first name, after the last name.
Bromwich, D. (1992). Politics by other means: Higher education and group thinking. New Haven : Yale University Press.
Book with two or more authors
The names of all the authors are inverted (last name first) and separated by commas. Even though et al. may be used in in-text citations after the first name when there are three or more authors, all the authors should be named in the reference list. Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word and before the name of the last author.
Barr, R., & Dreeban, R. (1983). How schools work. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
Book with group author
Alphabetize group-author entries by the first main word in the name (omit the articles a, an, and the). If the group author is also the publisher, use the word “Author” (not italicized or underlined) as the name of the publisher.
United Nations Children's Fund. (1990). The state of the world's children 1990. New York : Oxford University Press.
Book with editor or editors
Begin the entry with the name of the editor (or editors).
Enter the abbreviation “Ed.” for “Editor” (or “Eds.” for “Editors”), enclosed in parentheses, following the name of the last editor. For a book with an author and an editor, give the author’s name as the first element, and put the editor’s name in parentheses after the title, as a translator’s name is treated.
Zigler, E., & Valentine, J. (Eds.). (1979). Project Head Start: A legacy of the war on poverty. New York : Free Press.
In parentheses after the title of the work, insert the name of the translator (or translators) followed by a comma and the abbreviation “Trans.” (for”Translator” or “Translators”).
Durkheim, E. (193 8). The rules of the sociological method (8th ed.) (S. Solovay and J. Mueller, Trans.). New York : Free Press.
Book without listed author
Alphabetize the entry by the first significant word in the title (omit the articles a, an, and the).
American Heritage Larousse Spanish dictionary. (1986). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
The information about the edition immediately follows the title (which is not followed by a period); it is abbreviated (“Rev. ed.” for “revised edition,” “2nd ed.” for “second edition,” and so on), enclosed in parentheses, and followed by a period.
Goodall, J. (1988). In the shadow of man (Rev. ed.). Boston : Houghton Mifflin.
Selection in an edited book
Begin with the name of the author of the selection, followed by the title of the selection (do not italicize or underline the title or enclose it in quotation marks). The third part of the entry identifies the edited volume: After the word “In,” give the editor’s name in normal order, followed by “Ed.” in parentheses.
After a comma, give the book title (italicized or underlined) and, enclosed in parentheses, the volume number (if any) and the page numbers of the selection.
Freud, S. (1959). /Analysis of a phobia in a five- year-old boy. In A. Strachey & J. Strachey (Eds. and Trans.), Sigmund Freud: Collected papers (Vol. 3, pp. 78-94). London : Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1909)
This entry also shows the format for a republished work. Its date goes after the author’s name; the original date of publication is indicated at the end of the entry in parentheses after the phrase “Original work published.” The in-text citation should read “(Freud 1909/1959).”
After the title, enclose in parentheses the number of the volume (or volumes) consulted.(See example 8.) If all the volumes in the set were consulted, use inclusive numbers (such as “Vols. 1-4”). If the volume has a separate title and editor, show them by using the following format.
Mussen, H. P. (Series Ed.), & Hetherington, E. M. (Vol. Ed.). (1983). Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (4th ed.). New York : Wiley.
Entries for articles from periodicals have four parts, and each one ends with a period. The first part is the author’s name, with last name first and a comma separating it from the first initial. The second part is the date of publication, which is enclosed in parentheses. The third part is the title of the article, which is not underlined or enclosed in quotation marks; only proper nouns and the first word of the title and subtitle are capitalized. The fourth part is the title of the periodical, which is underlined with all the significant words capitalized. The title is followed by numbers identifying volume, issue, and pages.
Article in a magazine
Give the month of publication (and the day, if the magazine is published weekly) as well as the year. Note that the month is not abbreviated. After the title, include the volume number, underlined, and then the page numbers. Give all page numbers, including discontinuous pages.
Siebert, C. (1993, February). The artifice of the natural: How TV's nature shows make all the world a stage. Harper's, 131, 43-45, 51.
Article in a daily newspaper
Give the date of the issue along with the year of publication. List the section and page number (or numbers) at the end of the entry, using the abbreviation “p.” (or “pp.”).
Luoma, J. R. (1992, March 16). List of endangered species said to come too late to help. The New York Times, p. C4.
Article in a journal paginated by annual volume
Follow the title with a comma and then give the volume number (both the title and the volume number are italicized or underlined). After another comma, give the page numbers. Do not use the abbreviation “p.” in reference entries for journals.
Balint, A. (1949) . Love for the mother and mother- love. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 30, 251-259.
Article in a journal paginated by issue
Follow the title with a comma and then give the volume number (italicized or underlined) and the issue number (in parentheses). After another comma, give the page numbers. Do not use the abbreviation “p.” in reference entries for journals.
Geen, R. G., & Thomas, S. L. (1986). The immediate effects of media violence on behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 42 (3), 7-27.
Use the form for the appropriate kind of periodical, but begin with the article title and alphabetize the entry according to the first main word in the title. Use a shortened version of the title (such as “Hooked”) in the in-text citation.
Hooked on tobacco: The teen epidemic. (1995, March). Consumer Reports, 60, 142-147.
Begin with the interviewer’s name, and use the form for the appropriate kind of periodical. After the interview title (if any), insert a bracketed description that includes the interviewee’s name.
Norman, H. (1991). A conversation with Philip Levine [Interview with Philip Levine]. Ploughshares, 10(4), 11-22.
If the review has a title, insert it in front of the bracketed description (as in example 15). Identify the medium (such as book, film, television program) in brackets along with the title of the work being reviewed.
Meeks, H. A. (1992). [Review of the book The land that feeds us ]. Geographical Review, 82 (3), 331.
Letter to the editor
If the letter has a title, insert it before the bracketed phrase”Letter to the editor” (see example 15).
Rapier, F. Link (1993, April). [Letter to the editor]. Premiere, 30, p. 20.
If material is available in both print and electronic forms, the APA prefers references to the print form. For documents available only in electronic form, provide enough information so that the exact version of the document you consulted can be retrieved.
Provide the author, date, and title information as you would for a print source. After the title, add “[On-line].” For a source that is regularly revised, give the most recent update or, if that cannot be determined, the date of your search. In the place of the publication information that would be provided for a book, include an
availability statement with enough information (such as protocol, directory, and file name) to retrieve the material. To indicate the length of an unpaginated online source, use the number of paragraphs, and in in-text citations indicate the location of particular passages by using paragraph numbers.
Fitch, R. H., & Denenberg, V. H. (1994, March). A role for ovarian hormones in sexual differentiation of the brain [56 paragraphs]. Psycoloquy [On-line serial], 6(05). Available FTP: Hostname: princeton.edu Directory: pub/harnad/Psycoloquy/1995.volume.6 File: psycoloquy.95.6.05.sex.brain.1.fitch
CD-ROMs and other portable databases
Provide the author, date, and title information as you would for a print source. In brackets after the title, identify the medium (such as CD-ROM, electronic data tape, or cartridge tape). At the end of the entry, include the location and name of the producer and distributor or the item number in a data file.
Steinhausen, H. C, & Vollrath, M. (1993). The self-image of adolescent patients with eating disorders. [CD-ROM] International Journal of Eating Disorders, 13(2), 221-227. Abstract from: SilverPlatter File: PsycLIT Item: 80-33985
If an author is not listed, begin with the name of the agency. If there is a report number, include it in parentheses immediately after the title (with no punctuation intervening). If the agency is both author and publisher, use the
word “Author” (not italicized or underlined) in place of the publisher’s name.
U.S. Department of State. (1961). Foreign relations of the United States Diplomatic papers — the conferences at Cairo and Tehran 1943. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Film or other nonprint source
Give the name of the originators and, in parentheses, their function. Identify the medium (which could also be videotape, audiotape, slides, charts, or art work) in brackets immediately after the name of the work. At the end of the entry, give the location and name of the distributor or the site of the work of art.
National Geographic Society (Producer). (1986). Gorilla [Videotape]. Washington, DC : National Geographic Society.
Delaunay, S. (Artist). (1958). Colored rhythm no. 698 [Painting]. Buffalo : Allbright-Knox Art Gallery.
For a single episode in a series, use the basic form of a selection in an edited book (see example 8), with the script writer in the author position and the series producer in the editor position. If the show has a director, include the name in parentheses after its title.
Levy, P. R. (1994). The mission. In P. L. Stein (Producer), Neighborhoods: The hidden cities of San Francisco. San Francisco : KQED.
To cite a series, use the basic form for a book (see example 1), with the series producer in the author position and “Producer” in parentheses after the name. Use the same form to cite a particular broadcast of a regularly scheduled news program, but add the date of the broadcast after the year.
An entry for a court decision includes the name of the case (plaintiff v. defendant); the volume, name, and page number of the law report; and the court jurisdiction (if it was the Supreme Court, no name is necessary) and the date of the decision in parentheses.
Brown v. Board of Educ., 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
In in-text citations, the names of cases are underlined: Brown v. Board of Education (1954) .
An entry for a law or statute includes the name of the act; the volume and page or section number of the source; and the year in parentheses.
Atomic Energy Act of 1946, Pub. L. No. 585, 60 Stat. 767 (1947).
In in-text citations, the names of laws or statutes are not underlined: Atomic Energy Act (1946) .
If your paper has many legal citations, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, or The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation Review.