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Motivation is the process of human exposure to induce him to concrete actions by awakening certain motifs of his own. Motivation is the core of human control. Management effectiveness is largely conditioned by how successfully self-motivation is implemented.
Depending on what goals are pursued and what problems are required to be solved, the basic types of motivation are allocated. Thus, by external influences on human, specific motives which impel a person to certain actions leading to the desired result are activated. It is important to know exactly what motives are able to induce a person to the desired action, and then how to call these motifs. This type of motivation is like a bargain: “I give you what you want, but you give me what I need.” If the two sides don’t have a common ground, the process of motivation does not occur.
Another type of motivation focuses on the formation of a particular motivational structure of worker. It focuses on developing and strengthening the necessary motives of human actions or limitation of the reasons that hinder the effective management of employee. Such motivation is connected with large efforts, requires a lot of knowledge and skills to implement it. Its results are usually much higher than the results of the first type of motivation. Companies that use it in their practice are much better in managing their staff.
Different types of motivation can not oppose each other, because usually, in practice, they are combined. Right motivation affects different sides of employee’s work: efforts, persistence, fairness, orientation (Petri, 43-72).
So, motivation is a combination of forces that push a person to perform professional activities with the expenditure of some effort, at a particular level of diligence and integrity, with the necessary perseverance to achieve certain objectives. An interesting question is the relation of “intrinsic motivation” and “external motivation”.
In the first case, the motivation is called “internal”, because it is generated by a person facing with the task (salary, promotion, contract, employment security). In the other case, the motives of solving the problem, may be caused by external events. Such motivation is called “external” (sence of achievement, recognition, optimum use of abilities).
In life, there is no clear distinction of “internal” and “external” motivations. That’s why management should be based on “external” type of motivation, but taking into account the emergence of “intrinsic” motivation.
The Basic Motivation Model consists of six stages: 1. Tension/stimulus; 2. Wants; 3. Behavior; 4. Action toward goal achievement; 5. Feedback; 6. Unsatisfied needs.
Modern theories of motivation can be divided into two categories: content and process theories of motivation. The main idea of content theories of motivation is to determine the internal motives (needs) that push people to act in the prescribed way. Main representatives of this stream are Abraham Maslow, David McClelland, Frederick Herzberg.
Procedural theories of motivation are based primarily on how people behave in accordance with their perception and cognition. Basic procedural theories are: expectancy theory, goal theory and equity theory. The main representatives are: Vroom, Porter & Lawler, Adams and Locke.
These theories of motivation are complementary, not mutually exclusive, development of the theory of motivation has been evolutionary in nature, and both these theories are applied in solving problems of encouraging people to work effectively.
None of the existing theories of motivation has such an influence on thinking of employers, as the theory of needs, developed by a leading authority on motivation Abraham Maslow. Let’s stop our attention on it (Macey, 26-44).