- Posted by: essay
- Category: Free essays
Classification 1. Countries are divided into three groups depending on the relation of government to this issue and efforts made to combat and prevent trafficking. The first group includes the countries where human trafficking is regarded as highly relevant, where its solution combined efforts of state, municipal and community organizations. These countries, as a rule, have laws that punish human trafficking. This group includes, for example, the U.S. and Sweden (Bales & Soodalter, 2010).
The second group includes the countries where the problem of human trafficking is already recognized, public and municipal organizations works, but efforts to combat and prevent trafficking are not consolidated. For example, in Ukraine the criminal law provides liability for human trafficking, the government has adopted a program, which provides a package of measures to prevent trafficking, but there is no effective interaction between state, municipal and community organizations. The third group of countries is just beginning to recognize the problem, and more importantly, there is no legislative framework to combat trafficking (Shelley, 2010).
Classification 2. It distinguish the categories of countries like consumer countries (generally more economically developed), source countries (where there are conditions for the emergence of human trafficking – high unemployment, low incomes) and transit countries (through which the victims are transported). The first category includes the countries of the Western Europe and the U.S., as well as Turkey and Egypt, the second ones includes the former Soviet countries and Latin America (Quirk, 2007; Aronowitz, 2001).
It is difficult to distinguish purely transit countries. Both the source countries and consumer countries can be used to transport victims. Thus, the Russian Federation, by virtue of its geopolitical position, is the consumer country, the source and transit country. Citizens from Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova migrate to work in Russia. The residents of Russia, in turn, try to find work in Sweden, Germany, and the United States. At the same time, the territory of Russia is used for transport channels of the victims of trafficking from east to west (Salt, 2000).
Prevention of human trafficking
Nongovernmental organizations were the first to start preventive work in this area. In the late 1980s in the Netherlands the Foundation against trafficking in women was established. In 1995 this organization together with non-international organizations initiated the program “La Strada” – “Prevention of Trafficking in Women in Central and Eastern Europe” (Batstone, 2010). The main activities of the international program “La Strada” are:
• help to victims of trafficking;
• organization of “hot line” service;
• research on violence against women;
• examination of laws that govern the status of women in the country;
• educational activities among the youth on issues of women’s rights and preventing trafficking in women and other forms of violence;
• work with the media, dissemination of information on the problem;
• publication and distribution of materials, newsletters, flyers on prevention of trafficking in women;
• seminars, working sections and conferences;
• working with government agencies to form a national action program to prevent trafficking in women;
• cooperation with foreign embassies in the country and national embassies abroad, cooperation with governmental and nongovernmental organizations in the country and abroad in order to prevent trafficking and assist victims of the illegal trade.
The fight against the modern slave trade involves non-governmental organizations, such as the Association for Community Development (Bangladesh), Bonded Liberation Front (India), Anti-Slavery International (the USA) (Batstone, 2010).
The governments that have signed the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols, pledged to prevent and combat trafficking in persons through conducting and supporting programs aimed at informing the public, protecting victims and improving law enforcement.
International Organization for Migration is convinced that government agencies, nongovernmental organizations and civil society are able to develop a single comprehensive strategy to combat human trafficking, which will bring together prevention, prosecution and punishment of offenders, protecting victims and victim assistance (Nieuwenhuys & Pécoud, 2007).
IOM considers human trafficking and each case of exploitation and degradation as human rights violations and challenge to public safety.
Since 1994, IOM has been active in combating human trafficking worldwide (Goodey, 2008). The results of this activity are:
– Establishment of partnerships and technical cooperation with more than 500 government agencies and community organizations;
– Helping more than 15,000 victims, including men, women and minors;
– Development and implementation of over 500 projects to combat human trafficking in more than 85 countries.
Human trafficking means recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons for exploitation purposes by threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of authority or position of vulnerability or the giving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person. Exploitation includes, at least, the exploitation of prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery or servitude. The victims of human trafficking are children, teenagers, men and women. Human trafficking can take many forms, such as: sex industry, forced labor in the production, in restaurants and on agricultural operations, homework in slave-like conditions as domestic servants or governesses, brides trade, trade in bodies, and the removal of organs (Winterdyk & Reichel, 2010; Aronowitz, 2009).