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I would like to answer several philosophical questions within this paper.
The first question is connected with Descartes and his way of conversation and thinking in contrast to Socrates and Plato. Answering this question it is necessary to mention that Descartes has a conversational tone that leads his readers and listeners along with him in his thinking. It is interesting to understand that Descartes awoke the order of discovery instead of the use of exposition’s order according to the subjects that he described and discussed in his works. Contrasting Descartes to Plato and Socrates we see that his way of thinking is differ from ancient philosophers’ thinking, whom he respected and considered his teachers. Descartes has its own method of information presentation and, for example, Descartes’ method is characterized not by appeal to the books, the long-thumbed authorities whom he was well studied in his youth, in a Jesuit college, but independent reading of “the great book of the world.” I think that Descartes most than other philosophers liked exactly experimental approach to different sciences and that is why he allowed his readers to discovery some events in their own way and answer on their question taking into account own personal experience and basing on honored studies.
The next question is connected with Descartes’ First Meditation and its main ideas. Analyzing this piece of Descartes’ work I found that Descartes is better than any other thinker, expressed the mood of mind in which a person wants to approach to science. Thinking about Descartes words in this direction we see that due to the fact that it was very convenient in accordance with his plan, Descartes withdrew his mind from all cares and problems. Descartes achieved relaxing condition and it helped him to find right answers on all his questions. Thus, we see that Descartes rid himself of all cares and exactly in this state of mind he understood falsity of his previous thoughts and opinions that were based on his past experience.
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As it was mentioned in previous answer, Descartes use his own method of surrounding reality cognition and it allowed him to be closer to the essence of many things and events. This method is well described by Mark Twain’s phrase when he said that “I have never confused schooling with my education”, and according to it we could highlight two characteristic approaches of Descartes: aversion to formal schools and universities; independent investigation of own goals. The last phrase proves that Descartes withhold belief from things that are “not entirely certain and indubitable.”
The last third question will be about Aquinas’ philosophy. First of all it is necessary to sort out Aquinas’ arguments, because the purpose of Aquinas may be controversial, but his philosophical reflection really commendable. His arguments are simple and follow a clear logic and concrete structure, step by step, in a manner reminiscent of Plato’s dialogues and Aristotle’s works. He liked to start with simple and well-known things, and then gradually comes to more complex and profound conclusions. It seems to me to be successful proof and such way of thinking and Aquinas’ arguments work for me, because I like the way of his thinking and it could work for different people too. Describing Aquinas’ thoughts in relate to the Big Bang theory we see that there is a movement in nature. Nothing can begin to move by itself, it requires an external source of action. The endless search for the source of the previous action is meaningless. Consequently, there must be something that is the original source of all movement, not being itself moved by anything else. This is God – the real propulsive agent. Thus, for the conclusion we could say that Aquinas’ works has been used for doctrinal disputes solution and his philosophy became the intellectual supreme authority.
Potter, Vincent. Readings in Epistemology: From Aquinas, Bacon, Galileo, Descartes, Locke, Hume, Kant. Fordham University Press, 1993.