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Basically, the findings of the current research reveal the essence of the development of call centres in India today. In this regard, the development of effective human resource management may be one of the major challenges to call centres based in India because the current level of job satisfaction and the high level of the staff turnover may lead to the development of poor organizational performance and consistent deterioration of organizational culture in call centres based in India. As a result, the entire industry may face a considerable slow-down in its development.
Chapter 5. Conclusions
Today, the call centre industry is India employs a large number of fresh graduates and provides a very good remuneration compared to any other industry standards. However the attrition rate is increasing at an alarming rate raising concern at the overall advantage of outsourcing. The high attrition in any industry is often a reflection of lack of job satisfaction. The objective of the following research is to find out the different variables which constitute job satisfaction. The primary aim of the research is to establish the correlation between job satisfaction and high staff turnover in call centres. The research will also focus on different factors which contribute towards staff turnover in call centres. To establish a logical link the research will also find out the reasons for India’s growth as a major BPO hub. At the same time, it is important to find out what make India so attractive for leading companies operating internationally to outsource call centre services. Moreover, the development of the call centre industry in India implies the emergence of the close cooperation between multinational corporations and calls centres in India, while many multinational corporations develop their own call centres in India.
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Therefore, it is necessary to analyze prospects of the development of the call centre industry in India, taking into consideration the correlation between the job satisfaction and the staff turnover. It proves beyond a doubt that employees have their own needs and wants they expect and want to meet in the course of their work. If they fail to meet their needs, they feel frustrated and dissatisfied with their job and, on the contrary, if they meet their needs and wants, they are highly motivated and eager to work and they have the high level of job satisfaction.
Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is important to lay emphasis on the fact that call centres based in India keep emerging. The process of globalization contributes to the accelerated development of call centres in India. In actuality, the emergence of call centres in India is determined by objective factors, including the costs of the labour force in India. In addition, the well-developed infrastructure and technologies make India the largest BPO hub in the world and the target destination for outsourcing of call centres services from different countries of the world. As a result, the call centre industry in India keeps progressing. In such a situation, the position of the call centre industry in India is advantageous for outsourcing and companies outsource call centre services using call centres located in India.
At the same time, the development of call centres in India confronts a number of challenges in terms of company-employee relationships and in regard to the job satisfaction of employees. Basically, the job satisfaction of employees depends on a variety of factors. In this regard, it is possible to distinguish motivators, which contribute to the job satisfaction and hygiene factors, which do not contribute to the job satisfaction but without these factors the job satisfaction is likely to decrease to the extent that employees can feel dissatisfied with their job. Obviously, call centres operating in India should take into consideration both motivators and hygiene factors in order to keep employees satisfied with their job.
However, call centres often tend to fail to motivate employees using material awards, such as high salaries, but they fail to develop non-material motivation in employees. In this respect, it is important to lay emphasis on the fact that the workplace environment and the relationships between employees, between employees and managers working in call centres based in India deteriorate that leads to the growing dissatisfaction of employees with their job in call centres. In fact, call centres based in India do not develop their social responsibility. As a result, employees do not receive any substantial support from the part of call centres in regard to socially significant issues, such as health insurance, for instance.
Furthermore, call centres fail to develop the healthy organisational culture. At any rate, employees involved in the current research find the interpersonal relationships within their call centres as under-developed and poor that leads to the development of the unhealthy organisational culture that increases the risk of conflicts and deteriorates employees’ job satisfaction. The decrease of the job satisfaction forces employees to change their job. In such a way, the job satisfaction becomes an important factor that may lead to the high staff turnover in call centres based in India. In this regard, call centres based in India are responsible for the high staff turnover because they fail to create healthy organisational culture, where employees can feel comfortable and, thus, have the high job satisfaction.
In fact, employees face a number of problems which may provoke their job dissatisfaction to the extent that they can change their workplace and job at large. First of all, employees working in call centres based in India face the problem of a variety of biases and stereotypes, especially gender-related ones. In this regard, it is worth mentioning the fact that the work in call centres is traditionally perceived as a female job in India. As a result, male employees working in call centres face the problem of the impact of the gender-related stereotypes on their self-perception and the impact of their environment on their position in call centres. Nevertheless, call centres based in India attempt to eliminate such biases and stereotypes to shape a different image of the work in call centres based in India.
Furthermore, employees feel dissatisfied with their job because they have poor interpersonal relationships with managers as well as other employees. At this point, it is important to lay emphasis on the fact that the current research has revealed the dissatisfaction of employees with their relationships with managers. Naturally, such a situation in call centres can provoke conflicts within call centres based in India and increases the job dissatisfaction of employees.
In addition, employees suffer from the poor career opportunities. In fact, this is quite a controversial issue. On the one hand, employees do not have large opportunities for the career growth in call centres based in India. On the other hand, they receive the high salary, which is higher compared to other industries and to the average salary in India. Therefore, they have a high salary and a few career growth opportunities. In such a situation, employees can choose between a stable and high income, on the one hand, and prospects of career growth with uncertain salary. Naturally, many employees prefer to start working in call centres based in India but, in face of aforementioned problems, they sometimes grow dissatisfied with their position in call centres and with their job and eventually they prefer to change their job.
As the matter of fact, call centres in India have a large choice of employees and they may conduct recruiting policies and human resource management aiming at the high staff turnover to reduce costs of the labour force, for instance. Therefore, while analyzing the correlation between the job satisfaction and the staff turnover, it is necessary to take into consideration multiple factors, such as employees’ needs and expectations, policies of call centres, organizational culture, human resource management, and others.
In actuality, the development of call centres in India is closely intertwined with the development of new human resource management policies, which can facilitate the work of employees in call centres based in India. The development of new policies is challengeable task because it needs call centres to meet needs and wants of employees to increase their job satisfaction and prevent the staff turnover. Otherwise, the high level of the personnel turnover may lead call centres based in India to the deterioration of their organizational performance because the qualification and professionalism of their employees may be under a question in the result of the high staff turnover.
Finally, the job satisfaction turns out to have a significant impact on the staff turnover because employees prefer to change their job when they feel dissatisfied with their job. This is probably the most important finding of the current study that means that call centres based in India should focus on the improvement of the job satisfaction in India. At the same time, the job satisfaction is likely to keep influencing the staff turnover because it influences consistently employees’ decision making process. On the other hand, the job satisfaction affects the performance of call centres based in India but it does not lead to the job cuts or the staff turnover as a part of policy conducted by call centres. In such a way, the job satisfaction affects employees above all and leads to their decision to change their job.