- Posted by: essay
- Category: Free essays
At the beginning of the XXI century, the world is undergoing a lot of changes, which are caused by the expanding process of globalization. The major trend of recent decades are powerful integration processes in all spheres of public life, including education. Higher education and science have become a global factor of social development, are among the most important national and global priorities.
The term globalization is closely connected with the term internationalization, that means interconnections and interdependence of people, institutions and governments.
Globalization is a general term denoting a complex set of interactions between individuals, enterprises, institutions and markets, as well as between states.
Internationalization of higher education creates opportunities, promotes access to higher education and its quality, introduce innovative practices in higher education systems. Also internationalization contributes to its strengthening, being built on the achievements of international cooperation.
Many governments increasingly appreciate higher education as a factor that plays an important role in achieving far-reaching political and economic goals. It is a tie that binds nations and societies, including movement of people, information. That is why the concept of globalization in study now is one of the main issues, that is much spoken about.
The concept of internationalization in higher education in international practice traditionally involves two aspects: the “internal” internationalizing [internationalization at home] and the “external” or internationalization of education abroad, the formation of cross-country, cross-border education.
Internationalization of education includes the following forms of international cooperation:
1. individual mobility: mobility of students or faculty members for educational purposes;
2. mobility of educational programs and institutional mobility, the formation of new international standards for educational programs;
3. integration into the international dimension of curricula and educational standards;
4. institutional partnerships: strategic educational alliances.
In the UNESCO report “Higher Education in ХХ1 Century” (1998) it is noted that “higher education is observed close encounter, if not common problems, trends, goals and objectives, making you forget about the national and regional differences and specificity”.
If to consider the main aspects of the role of education in globalization process, we can point out such as:
– Penetration of the periphery;
– Policies of structural adjustments.
But it is important to point out that UNESCO provides guidelines and regulation acts, which define the general guidelines, basic principles, as well as the optimal model of development and functioning of national education systems.
Internationalization of education has different objectives:
– diversification and growth of financial revenue through attracting foreign students to pay tuition;
– students studying in foreign universities-partners;
– regional network for the effective use of their resources to improve the quality of education and research through participation students and teachers in the process of international exchange of knowledge, etc.
The development of international inter-university cooperation allows to organize common research projects, exchange programs for students and teachers, special programs for foreign students.
The key problems that contribute to globalization are as follows:
– Internationalization strategies;
– Transnational education;
– Providing international quality;
– Regional and interregional cooperation;
– Information and communication technology and virtual universities;
– Problems of equity and accessibility of education.
So globalization of education creates opportunities, promotes access to higher education and its quality, introducing innovative practices in higher education systems. Built on the achievements of international cooperation, internationalization, in turn, contributes to its strengthening.
1. Epstein, Erwin H. “Globalization of Education – Globalization Theory, The Role of Education Education”. Encyclopedia online – StateUniversity.com. Web.