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It is difficult to find today a more fashionable and discussion topic than globalization. Dozens of conferences and symposia, hundreds of books, thousands of articles are devoted to it. Scientists, politicians, businessmen, religious leaders, artists, and journalists argue about it. The subject of lively debate is literally everything – what a globalization is, when it started, how it fits with other processes in public life, and what its immediate and long-term consequences are. However, the abundance of opinions, approaches and assessments does not mean that all the aspects and sides of this fundamental issue are disclosed, that its further study is not necessary. Rather the contrary, it is waiting for a thorough study.
Robert Marks is also very interested in the question of globalization. His thoughts about this question are expressed in the book “The Origins of the Modern World: A Global and Ecological Narrative from the Fifteenth to the Twenty-first Century”. His work is a very helpful instrument for the study of the history of the world. In this book a global narrative of the origins of the modern world is presented. The author starts his book and finishes it by the events of 2001. Marks makes stress on the non-Eurocentric study of the world. All his ideas are directed on the necessity of the achievement of a “polycentric” world outlook. Here Robert Marks gives a major role in the world’s origin to such parts of the world as Asia, Africa and the New World. The author characterizes the modern world by industry, interstate wars, great gap between poor and rich parts of the world. Robert Marks defines the origins of the world by particular circumstances like the conquest of the New world; combination of the natural and human forces that strengthen the chasm between industrial and non-industrial parts of the world; comparison of the most developed parts in India, China and Europe. As we can see from this book the author has his own very interesting and individual point of view on the subject of globalization. He makes a persuasive case for adopting a global rather than a Eurocentric perspective on the history of globalization since the fifteenth century.
Now let us remind what globalization is. Globalization is a relatively new term that won the dissemination in the scientific and political literature in the last decade. There are still hot debates over its definition.
Globalization is a historical tendency of the modern era. Traditional boundaries are eroded and societies are transformed into a single political system. There were not such events even in the recent past. However, globalization is such a huge problem that some countries can not deal with and which relates to all mankind.
Basing on the position of the author and analyzing the information received, we can see that the origin of the globalist vision of the world, or as it is called, peace-trough history vision, can more accurately specify the date of the emergence of globalization as a particular world view, ways of thinking as a kind of algorithm with the help of which people tried earlier and are trying now to solve for themselves some vital issues.
Globalization in economic terms does not unite but subordinates regions and countries of the world. Each phase of the European expansion, starting with the development of Mediterranean trade, and to this day, was due to the scientific and technological developments and progressive change in the prevailing technological structures. This dynamic allowed the Europeans to undergo a number of forms of social organization successively changing each other for two millennia, while the traditional societies in the rest of the world remained almost unchanged in shape. In the history of Europe the main factors that provide farms progress were changed more than once: military force of antiquity gave way to the medieval monopoly on the ground, then the owners of the capital began to play a leading role. Either way, the control of the rarest in the community resource, rare factor of production remained the basis of the social polarization. But if so, the global inequality in modern conditions is insurmountable.
In his book Robert Marks proposes his own approach that deals with the socioeconomic relations and processes in the world. According to Marks the beginning of the irreversible socioeconomic processes was started from the nineteenth century when the processes of industrialization promoted the passage from the world where all the aspects of life depended from the renewable sources of energy to the world where people created the environments based on the trade priorities. In these new environments people consumed the non-renewable sources of energy that lead to the destruction of the world. To tell in brief The Origins of the Modern World is a useful manual of the bases of organization of trade in the history of the world. And this subject is illuminated from the global perspective.
To make a conclusion we should say that Robert Marks explored the problem of globalization from the non-Eurocentric perspective. And having analyzed his work we can say that his approach deals very effectively with the socioeconomic relations and processes.
Marks, Robert B. The Origins of the Modern World: A Global and Ecological Narrative from the Fifteenth to the Twenty-first Century. Second edition. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007