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It goes without saying that social sciences have significant impact on the contemporary life and the theories provided by contemporary scientists’ could be analyzed according the theories provided by the scientists. It is essential that among the contemporary theories there are a number that have provided a huge impact on the development of social sciences and it is essential that applying these theories to the social events could help to solve the problems after the thorough analysis. The aim of this essay to make use of two social theories provided by Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore (stratification theory) and W. E. B. Du Bois (theory of interracial communication) according to the current social event: the inefficiency of the United States educational system, in particular the increase of drop out rate. This essay would provide general description of the event and the measures, which are taken to decrease drop out rate; why the measures are inefficient.
General Description of Contemporary State in the U.S. Education
Educational programs in the United Sates are mainly governmental, which is controlled and financed on the three different levels: federal governmental, state governmental and local governmental controls. The literacy rate in the United States is 98%, but according to the census held in 2003 only 84.6% over 25 years old had secondary education, 52.5% got higher education and 27,3% got bachelor degree: “32 million adults in the USA — about one in seven — are saddled with such low literacy skills that it would be tough for them to read anything more challenging than a children’s picture book or to understand a medication’s side effects listed on a pill bottle” (Toppo, 2009).
American education is one of the most expensive but statistics gives shows it inefficiency and provides bad prognosis for its further development as well. What are the reasons for such a phenomenon? In the whole world their exist lots of countries that do not make such a great inputs in their educational systems but statistical data shows that they are more efficient than The United States. The question is not an easy one and but a complicated one. The aim is to find the reasons why as well as efficient methods to learn how to decrease the dropout rate within the education.
The Reasons of Dropout Rate
It won’t be a secret that one of the most problematic zones in the education is dropout rate increasing. Disturbing signals have appeared earlier, already in the 90-s of the 20th century. And the subject connected on the educational problem is studied deeply. Different commissions were formed and we can learn about the results of their work: “The National Education Commission on Time and Learning found that most American students spend less than half their day actually studying academic subjects. The commission’s two-year study found that American students spent only about 41 percent of the school day on basic academics. Their schedules jammed with course work in self-esteem, personal safety, AIDS education, family life, consumer training, driver’s ed, holistic health, and gym, the typical American high school student spends only 1,460 hours on subjects like math, science, and history during their four years in high schools. Meanwhile, their counterparts in Japan will spend 3,170 hours on basic subjects, students in France will spend 3,280 on academics, while students in Germany will spend 3,528 hours studying such subjects – nearly three times the hours devoted in American schools” (Sykes, 1999, p. 215). Analyzing the reasons from the sociological point of view (Davis and Moore theory) the social inequality has significantly influenced the increase of the drop out rate. Here we would mention a number of young Americans are grown up in disadvantaged families and this trend has a huge negative impact on the future of these children. It goes without saying that problems with inter-racial communication (according to the Du Bois theory) could also impact the decrease of drop out rate (Du Bois, 1901). The national problem of the school segregation, which revealed in 1980-s has still a significant impact on the development of educational system and we still could find a number of schools, where children are separated by class or race from the others due the district of their dwelling.
The lack of motivation is the second reasons, which come to mind after analyzing the current state of things and according to the sociological approach by Davies and Moore inappropriate system of rewards and raising of the interest was use, – as a result the lack of motivation (Davis & Moore, 1945).