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Post-modernism’s set of tendencies was connected with the radical revaluation of values of avant-gardism in art culture. The utopian aspirations of previous avant-garde were replaced by self-critical attitude to art. Post-modernism has been addressed to evident citations from art history, to unique features of a landscape, combining it with advanced achievements of building technology. The previous opposition of tradition and avant-garde has lost the sense in this situation.
Post-modernism is the cumulative name of the art tendencies. Post-modernism is the cumulative name of the art tendencies. These art tendencies were designated in 1960 and characterized by radical revision of a position of a modernism and avant-garde.
The representatives of post-modernism have accepted our everyday life and they have made art extremely opened, have filled it not with imitations or life deformations, but with fragments of real vital process. Last here usually is only critically corrected, instead of changes entirely in something new and unprecedented. Quite often given concept apply broad, naming “postmodernist”: all last decades 20 centuries as a whole, with their new, that is computer, scientific and technical revolution, disintegration of socialist system etc.
The postmodernism as a literary trend has been connected with the mass art and mass trivial literature at the beginning. Its aesthetic specificity is defined as the organic coexistence of various art methods. The basic method is “illusionism”. The trivial literature tails after perception stereotypes. It does not expand the informative horizon and fixes the accepted sights in consciousness, leading up them to level of prejudices.
All structure of the post-modernist novel appears as a negation of relationships of cause and effect, the linearities of a narration and the psychological determinacy of behaviour of the character. Writers create a complete image of the hero with the help of reception. Writers of a modernist style leant against the assumption that it is possible to build the past full enough from a material of memoirs. Post-modern considered the procedure, forming on a material of memoirs of the complete issued picture to be a forgery.
Representatives of post-modern consider such forgery to be the domination of legislative reason. Received pictures from the past are not identical to the past. The interpretive reason refuses to restore the maintenance of lost time adequately.
Describing memoirs it is necessary to keep itself and the heroes from a strong desire to reconstruct its maintenance logically. It is necessary to be given simply to a stream of memory and to try to substantiate it in a word or an image.
The space of memoirs expands without any orderliness. There is no a plot, a plot structure, denouement, there is only a stream of memoirs. The refuse of essence is accompanied in poetry by loss of a sense and a plot. The poetic creativity became a process of creativity of the form which is created by magic coupling of sounds and words.
The culture has stopped to be the ideal sphere, area of firm domination of imperishable canons of beauty, grace and perfection. Such way of art development puts the spectator with the artist on one side, and it is a barbarity side, a reference point. The basic semantic concepts receive displacement. It is necessary to resolve cultural and personal dichotomies such as a chaos or space, a culture or anticulture, a responsibility for the beginning or an arbitrariness freedom.
The eclecticism grew ripe in the sphere of the modern culture during all European history of the XX-th century. The culture ceases to be comfortable space in a beginning of the century. The African, Asian and European cultures face with each other and strengthen processes of assimilation of those art phenomena, which differed cleanliness of thoughts. Displacement of various spiritual layers increases and puts a person on a side of chaos. The person starts to feel that he is only responsible for the life. It, probably, defines the main value of a life.
Post-modern has come to the European culture during student’s revolutions in1968 and became the reaction to art. It has tried to show a society the new super idea: the original artist is surrounded with enemies in the world.
Post-modern sates this world with revolutionary potential, creating a new art-revolutionary situation, inventing a new civilisation. It is conformable for ideas of a new sexuality and new sensitivity.
The understanding of aesthetic pleasure has also been changed. The main theme of realistic art was the world of people, their relations to the nature and to each other.
The ability of the artist plausibly shared to represent (on a canvas, in the text) or to express (in music, poetry) this world. Post-modern condemns the mental infection, a belief that a laugh and tears is a deceit aesthetically and a cheating.
The theorist and the artist are figures silent in an aesthetics and art of post-modern. The artist is a master who expresses the universal values in a context of traditional culture. The talent measure is connected with a measure of mastering by the artist an art material such as a word, sound, colour and a stone.
It is possible to allocate two ways of consideration of reason: the first starts with its recognition as a basis of human ability to live and the second way of the relation is opposite to previous one in culture of modern life.
Postmodernist claims were showed in a reason, first of all, in philosophy of a post-modern which has refused services of legislative reason in favour of reason interpretive. The legislative paradigm of reason has been replaced by the interpretive. The legislative reason was based on the assumption of the certain steady general maintenance which is not deduced from the empirical life of the world of things, and has developed the method of its comprehension named “scientific”.