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The emergence of social exchange theory. In general, the social exchange theory consists of social relations rather than public. The societies have viewed the behavior influence of each other in the relationship; there are also elements of discipline, of sacrifice and gain that reflect social exchange. The reward is all that through the sacrifice, when the sacrifice can be avoided, and the benefit is reduced by the rewards of sacrifice. So the social behavior of the exchange at least between two people is based on the cost-benefit calculations. For example, patterns of behavior in the workplace, romance, marriage and friendship. Analogy from the case, at some point people can feel in any of their friends, who, usually, are always trying to get something from you. At that time you always give what a friend needs from you, but the opposite is actually happening when you need something from your friends. Each individual course has a goal to be friends with each other. These individuals would be expected to do something for others, help each other if needed, and provide mutual support. However, maintaining friendly relations also requires the costs, such as the lost time and energy and other activities. Although these costs are not seen as something that is expensive or burdensome when viewed from the point of reward obtained from these friendships. However, these costs should be considered if we are to objectively analyze the relationships that exist in a friendly transaction. If the cost seems not in accordance with the compensation, what happens is the uneasy feeling of a person who feels that the benefits received were too low compared to the cost or sacrifice that has been given.
An analysis of the social relationships that occur according to the cost and reward is one characteristic of the exchange theory. This exchange theory has focused on micro-level analysis, particularly at the interpersonal level of social reality. In this discussion the focus will be on the notion of exchange theory by Homans and Blau. Homans in his analysis insisted on the necessity to use the principles of individual psychology to explain social behavior rather than merely describing it. But Blau, on the other hand, was trying to move from the level of interpersonal exchanges at the micro level to the macro level of social structure. He attempted to show how larger are the social structures that emerged from the basic exchange processes.
Unlike the analysis described by the theory of symbolic interaction, exchange theory was mainly seen as the real behavior, not the processes that are purely subjective. This was also adopted by Homans and Blau, who were not focused on the subjective level of consciousness or reciprocal relationships between the levels of dynamic interaction of subjective. Homans further argued that scientific explanations should be focused on real behavior and then can be observed and measured empirically. The process of social exchange has also been expressed by the classical sociologists. As expressed in the classical economic theory of the 18th and 19th century, the economists like Adam Smith have analyzed the economic market as a result of a comprehensive collection from a number of individual economic transactions. He assumes that transactions will happen only if both parties can gain from these exchanges, and welfare of the community in general can be very well secured when the individuals are left to pursue personal interests through negotiated exchanges in private.