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Call centres based in India have a number of advantages that make them particularly attractive for foreign companies and that make India one of the largest BPO hubs in the world (See App. Figure 2). First of all, one of the major advantages of call centres based in India is the low price for customer support. In such a way, through outsourcing, multinational corporations and foreign companies can save costs on customer support using services of call centres located in India. Secondly, as it has been already mentioned above, English-speaking and tech savvy professionals comprise one of the major marketing assets of call centres based in India. The high professional level and language competence make Indian employees of call centres valuable not only for companies operating in English-speaking countries but also for all companies operating internationally because English is the vehicle language of business communication as well as other types of communication. Thirdly, the expertise in all types of customer support opens call centre services based in India to companies operating in different industries. In other words, call centres based in India can provide the customer support and other call centre services to any company, regardless of its industry background because they have professionals experienced in different fields and industries. Fourthly, call centres based in India have the time-zone advantage that enables 24 hour support. The physical location of India provides local call centres with the time-zone advantage that is particularly important in the contemporary business environment, when companies need to provide the 24 hour customer support. Fifthly, outsourcing emerges because foreign companies outsourcing call centre services in India can count for supportive Indian government and policies. This means that Indian government and policies are liberal in relation to outsourcing, while the government attempts to attract foreign direct investments by all means that make local fiscal policies liberal and the local call centre industry is open for foreign investors and all companies and clients willing to outsource call centre services. Finally, call centres based in India have state-of-the-art infrastructure and technology (Morgan & Krueger, 1998). To put it in simple words, call centres located in India have a well-developed infrastructure and technologies. In this regard, many specialists (Chanda, 2002) point out that Indian government attempts to stimulate the development of knowledge-based industries. The latter, in its turn, leads to the ongoing improvement of the infrastructure and technologies and, therefore, to the emergence of call centres in India. buy research paper
At the same time, employees are not always satisfied with their workplace environment and relationships between professionals working within call centres based in India. In this regard, the current study has revealed the fact that employees are often dissatisfied with interpersonal relationships in call centres based in India, although managers and trainers have a more optimistic view on this issue. They stand on the ground that interpersonal relationships within call centres are normal, although they are not perfect. Therefore, the poor interpersonal relationships and problems in the organisational culture are one of the major reasons for the poor job satisfaction in call centres located in India.
At this point it is possible to refer to existing studies, which reveal the fact that the work in call centres based in India is traditionally associated with the female job. Therefore, male employees, who start working in call centres based in India, may feel uncomfortable because of existing gender-related biases and stereotypes. As a result, employees grow dissatisfied with their job and their workplace environment. In such a context, it is possible to speak about cultural specificities of the work in call centres based in India and specificities of the local culture, which positions the work in call centres as female job. Hence, the growing dissatisfaction of male employees emerges because of their position of employees performing female job. The growing dissatisfaction of employees with their position in call centres based in India provoke the rise of the staff turnover because male employees are not always willing to work in call centres, where they perform female jobs. To tackle this problem, call centres based in India attempt to change the attitude of the society and employees to the work in call centres positioning the job in call centres as unisex and male job.
In addition, it is worth mentioning the fact that the current study has revealed the fact that employees are ready to change the job, if they are not satisfied with their workplace environment and relationships with other employees and managers. In this regard, one of the major problems that employees involved in the study identified is the problem of poor career opportunities they face in call centres based in India. In addition, call centres based in India do not provide their employees with a large range of social responsibility policies. In such a situation, employees naturally have the poor job satisfaction which can be compensated by the high salary. However, the material motivation does not always work and it does not work for a long time. As a result, employees prefer to change their job and quit call centres increasing the staff turnover rate in call centres based in India.
On the other hand, there is a risk of call centres’ policies aiming at the staff turnover to reduce the costs of the labour force even more in India. In fact, call centres can provoke the staff turnover through the low social responsibility and little attention to needs of employees. However, as the current research has shown, managers of call centres do not believe that job dissatisfaction can be a reason for firing employees, whereas they are interested in well-trained professionals, who can perform their functions and duties properly. Therefore, the job dissatisfaction cannot be reason for firing of employees by call centres based in India but employees can change the job because of their job dissatisfaction. In such a way, the close correlation between the job satisfaction and the staff turnover exists in regard to employees and their own decisions concerning their career development.