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France hopes that its nuclear energy sector will eventually become a model to be emulated in other countries. French President Nicolas Sarkozy has already made this industry a key foreign policy issue. However, most experts note that such a nuclear policy could eventually create many problems for the authorities and put the country heavily dependent on nuclear fuel.
France has already signed several agreements on nuclear energy with the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Algeria and Libya. One of the world’s largest manufacturers of nuclear reactors – Areva – late last year signed a very lucrative contract with China worth 11.73 billion dollars According to the agreement, France is obliged to establish in China two reactors, which provide the Celestial nuclear fuel for the next two decades, transmits Reuters.
Experts also note that at this point particularly advantageous position in this industry holds the French Areva and EDF, since they will profit from the revival of nuclear power in Britain and the United States. Immediately after the oil crisis of 1970s, France began to actively invest in nuclear energy. The country continued to pursue a policy even after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. According to recent studies, in 2007 about 51% of French people favored the revival of this industry, which is 6% higher than in 2006. The study also notes that French citizens see in the construction of nuclear power the best way of addressing global warming.
However, this view is not shared by all analysts. On the contrary, many say that the strong dependence of France on nuclear fuel could eventually prove to be its Achilles heel. “The French nuclear program should not become a role model because she is very vulnerable,” – said a representative of Paris Dauphine university, Jean-Marie Chevalier.
The threat to the existence of the industry creates the lack of the required number of skilled workers. “It is essential that France was engaged in preparation of professional personnel, not only for their own needs, but also for the needs of the countries that it wants to supply nuclear fuel,” – said a representative of the consulting company Capgemini Colette Leviner.
After a serious Chernobyl accident, many States have been eliminated or curtailed program to build new nuclear power plants, but in 32 countries nuclear power stations have continued to work and develop. The potential attractiveness of nuclear power, its enormous advantages of very conservative energy source is not allowed to forget it, provided the interest in its further use. In this cruel lesson of the accident that have been learned, there should be made the necessary conclusions. There was a understanding of absolute necessity to have plant defense in depth to the accident in any case, outside the station. Established security systems plant in which no person controls their work and their own system of control human action. Thus, contemplating the severe experience of Chernobyl, they could and should go forward.buy reserach paper
It is known that the processes upon which the receipt of nuclear power can potentially be more dangerous than, for example, conventional combustion processes. As a consequence, nuclear power is the first in history in obtaining energy implements the principle of maximum security at the highest possible performance. Modern nuclear power raises questions not just about the production of electricity, we are talking only about safe production. Similarly, the question of storage and disposal of waste is solved only in terms of security. The requirements are clear: progress must be safe for humans. Constantly increasing demands for security and simultaneously expands the scope of use of nuclear energy.
Years of experience in operating nuclear power plants in all countries confirms that nuclear plants do not have a significant adverse impact on the environment. Experience has shown that lack of exposure does not depend on the duration of the plant – in the park of nuclear power units are of different generations. The average time of operation of existing nuclear power plant is currently about 30 years. Reliability, safety and economic efficiency of nuclear power plants rely not only on the strict regulation of the operation of nuclear power plants, but also in minimizing the impact of NPP on the environment.
World share leader in nuclear power plants in the national production of electricity is France. Nuclear power in this country is developing steadily and persistently. It operated 59 nuclear power units with a total electric capacity of 70 GW, generating 78% of the entire country’s electricity. In late 1997, France commissioned reactor unit with pressurized water (PWR) power capacity of 1,450 MW, which belongs to the third generation of reactors increased security. In 2007 started the construction of a new, third one power generating 1600 MW nuclear power plant near the town of Flamanville. The French are not afraid of the neighborhood of the nuclear power stations with the major cities. On the contrary, looking at the map of France, it is easy to notice that much of the plant is located on the banks of major rivers near industrial centers – the main consumers of energy, such as Paris, Lyon, Nantes. The density of the nuclear power plants in France is very high. If it is to measure produced by nuclear power per square kilometer, then for France, this parameter is about 100 kW / km 2. The French have no Chernobyl syndrome – during a public opinion poll of more than 60% of respondents gave a negative answer to the question of whether to close plant in France after the Chernobyl accident.
Nuclear power development program is adopted in many countries. According to the World Association of nuclear power by 2020 tin he world there will be put into operation more than 100 nuclear reactors. According to various estimates, by 2020 only in the states of Asia there will be built from 40 to 80 new reactors. Currently, in 14 different countries around the world there are built 36 new nuclear power plants total capacity of over 23 GW. Among the countries that are actively developing nuclear energy, can be identified France, Ukraine, Finland, Japan, South Korea, China, India, etc.
It is worth noting that in the world at the moment there are about 440 reactors, which are located in more than 30 countries. France is a country where nuclear power has become a major source of energy: nuclear power plant in there for about 78% of all electricity produced, 12% provide hydroelectric power, and only about 10% are wind power and oil and gas.
In the future, no doubt, there will be used new sources of energy, even more powerful than the energy of the nucleus, for example, fusion, and then even more powerful and safe sources. But to date there is no other way but the full development of nuclear energy. For the next 30 – 40 years of development of nuclear energy will be without alternative. To prevent catastrophic climate change and reduce by 2050 greenhouse gas emissions by 50%, would require increasing the total capacity of nuclear power stations in 7-8 times.