For short papers with only a page or two of notes, a bibliography may be optional because the reader can easily spot the bibliographical information for the sources consulted. But for longer papers, a separate bibliography is an aid to the reader because it can be difficult to locate the first note for a source among pages and pages of notes. Find out whether your instructor wants you to provide a bibliography.
Bibliography entries contain essentially the same information as the first note for a source, but there are some variations in format. First, the name of the author (the first author, if there is more than one) is reversed because the bibliography is arranged alphabetically by last name. Second, the elements in a bibliographical entry are separated by periods rather than commas, and parentheses do not enclose the publication information. The examples that follow explain additional variations for specific kinds of sources.
The first line of a bibliography entry begins at the left margin, and subsequent lines are indented. Turabiahs Manual for Writers specifies an indentation of five spaces and single-spacing within entries but double-spacing between them. The Chicago Manual specifies an indentation of three to four spaces for the second and subsequent lines and double-spacing both within and between entries. Find out which style your instructor prefers.
The bibliography may be titled “Selected Bibliography,” “Works Cited,” or “Sources Consulted.” This last choice is appropriate if you have used interviews or other nonprint sources.
1. Book with one author.
Jeffrey, Julie Roy. Frontier Women: The Trans- Mississippi West 1840-1860. New York: Hill and Wang, 1979.
2. Book with more than one author. Semicolons may be used to separate the names of three or more authors.
Hudson, Travis; Thomas Blackburn; Rosario Curletti; and Janice Timbrook. The Eye of the Flute: Chumas h Traditional History and Ritual as Told by Fer nando Librado Kitsepawit. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, 1977.
Tedlock, Dennis, and Barbara Tedlock. Teaching from the American Earth: Indian Religion and Philosophy. New York : Liveright, 1975.
3. Book with a group or corporate author.
University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style. 14th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
4. Book with an editor.
Smith, H. Shelton; Robert T. Handy; and Lefferts A. Loetscher, eds. American Christianity . New York : Scribner’s, 1960.
5. Book with an editor or translator and an author.
Fuentes, Carlos. Burnt Water. Translated by Margaret Sayers Peden. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1980; New York: Noonday Press, 1986.
6. Foreword or introduction.
Tanner, Tony. Introduction to Pride and Prejudice , by Jane Austen. 1813. Reprint, edited by Tony Tanner, New York: Penguin.
7. Book without a listed author or editor. These entries are listed alphabetically by the first main word in the title. If the first word is a or the, it may be transposed to the end of the title, preceded by a comma.
Dorothea Lange. With an essay by Christopher Cox. Vol. 5 of Aperture Masters of Photography. New York : Aperture, 1987.
8. Book edition other than the first.
Smith, Lacy Baldwin. This Realm of England. 5th ed. Lexington , Mass.: D.C. Heath, 1988.
9. Selection in an edited book.
Garrard, John. "Parties, Members and Voters After 1867." In Later Victorian Britain , edited by T. R. Gourvish and Alan O'Day. New York : St. Martin 's Press, 1988.
10. Letter in a published collection.
Queen Victoria . Letter to Vicky, 28 January 1863. Queen Victoria in Her Letters and Journals, edited by Christopher Hibbert. New York: Viking Penguin, 1985.
11. Volume in a multivolume series.
Hughes, Paul L., and James F. Larkin, eds. Tudor Royal Proclamations . Vol. 1 of The Early Tudors (1485- 1553). New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964.
12. Article in a journal.
Snyder, Gary. "Cold Mountain Poems." Evergreen Review 2, no. 6 (autumn 1958): 69-80.
13. Article in a magazine.
Rogers, Warren. "The Persecution of Clay Shaw." Look, 26 August 1969, 60.
14. Article in a daily newspaper. News items are rarely listed separately; articles from special sections are treated like articles from general-interest magazines.
Krauss, Clifford. "Twenty-Eight Years after Assassination, Conspiracy Theories Refuse to Die." New York Times , 5 January 1992, 18(N).
15. Interview, published or broadcast.
Smith, Huston. Interview by Bill Moyers. The Wisdom of Faith: A Personal Philosophy, Part 5. Public Broadcasting System, 28 April 1996.
O'Connor, John J. "An England Where Heart and Purse Are Romantically United." Review of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice (BBC/A&E television production). New York Times , 13 January 1996, 13(L).
17. Online source.
Johnson, Eric. "How Jane Austen's Characters Talk" (version 2.0 of Text Technology: The Journal of Computer Text Processing 4 [Winter 1994]: 263-67). In Jane Austen Information Page [WWW home page; cited 21 May 1996]. Available from http://www.dsu.edu/~Johnsone/ austench.html,- INTERNET.
18. Film, videorecording, or other visual material.
Pride and Prejudice. Directed by Robert Z. Leonard. Produced by Hunt Stromberg. Starring Greer Garson and Laurence Olivier. MGM/UA, 1940. Videocassette.
19. Sound recording.
Rodrigo, Joaquin. “Concierto de Aranjuez.” On Rodrigo: Conciertos. Pepe Romero and Academy of St. Martin in the Fields. Sir Neville Marriner. Philips compact disk 432 828-2.
20. Public document.
U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. Negro Population 1790-1915. Washington, D.C.: 1918.
21. Unpublished dissertation or thesis.
Johnston, James Hugo. "Race Relations in Virginia and Miscegenation in the South, 1776-1860." Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1937.
22. Secondary source. The page number comes immediately after the title if the first-mentioned work is a book. The second-mentioned work is treated in note style, with commas separating the elements and parentheses around the facts of publication of books.
Brundage, Burr Cartwright. Lords of Cuzco : A History and Description of the Inca People in Their Final Days, 160. Norman, Okla. : University of Oklahoma Press, 1967. Quoted in John Felstiner, Translating Neruda: The Way to Macchu Picchu (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1980), 264.
23. More than one work by an author. When more than one work by the same author is listed in the bibliography, a long dash can be used in place of the name in the second and subsequent entries. The Chicago Manual represents the long dash with three hyphens (—); Turabian’s Manual for Writers specifies an “eight-space line (made by striking the underscore key eight times” ( _____ ). Find out your instructor’s preference. The entries may be arranged alphabetically by title (disregarding introductory articles, such as a or the) or chronologically; use one method or the other consistently throughout the bibliography.
Dorsey, George A. Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee. Boston : Houghton Mifflin, 1904.
---- . The Traditions of the Caddo. Washington, D.C. :
Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1905.
---- . The Pawnee Mythology . Washington , D.C. : Carnegie Institution of Washington , 1906.