14. Article in a journal. The article title is enclosed in quotation marks. The journal title is underlined or italicized. The volume number follows the name of the journal. If there is an issue number, it may be included alter the volume number either in parentheses (in which case, the date follows the page number) or preceded by “no.” (the abbreviation for “number”). Issue numbers must be included for journals paginated by issue rather than volume or year. The date of publication is enclosed in parentheses and followed by a colon and the page number (or numbers) of the information being cited.
1. Alice Dunbar-Nelson, "People of Color in Louisiana ," Journal of Negro History 2 (1917): 78.
2. Gary Snyder, "Cold Mountain Poems," Evergreen Review 2, no. 6 (autumn 1958): 69-80.
2. Gary Snyder, "Cold Mountain Poems," Eve green Review 2 (6) : 69-80 (autumn 1958).
15. Article in a magazine. A reference to an article in a general-interest magazine does not need to include the volume number; if it does not, the date of the issue is not enclosed in parentheses, and the page number is separated fron the date by a comma rather than a colon. Whichever style you choose to use in your paper, use it consistently.
3. Warren Rogers, "The Persecution of Clay Shaw," Look, 26 August 1969, 60.
3. Warren Rogers, "The Persecution of Clay Shaw,"
Look 33 (26 August 1969): 60.
16. Article in a daily newspaper. If the section of the paper is identified, include its name, number, or letter. When the entry includes section number, page number, and column number, use the abbreviations “sec.” “p.,” and “col.” to avoid confusion (see example 19). If the city is not named in the title of the newspaper, add it to the title in parentheses (see example 17).
4. Clifford Krauss, "Twenty-Eight Years after Assassination, Conspiracy Theories Refuse to Die," New York Times , 5 January 1992, 18(N).
5. "Garrison Predicts Success for Probe," ( New Orleans ) Times Picayune , 19 February 1967, 2.
6. Huston Smith, interview by Bill Moyers, The Wisdom of Faith: A Personal Philosophy, Part 5 , Public Broadcasting System, 28 April 1996.
19. Review. Start with the name of the reviewer and the title of the review (if any).
After the words “review of,” identify the work reviewed by name and author (or other relevant information, such as director, performers, producer, type of production, location and date of a live performance). Finally, give the name, date, and page number(s) of the periodical where the review appeared.
7. John J. O'Connor, "An England Where Heart and Purse Are Romantically United," review of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice (BBC/A&E television production), New York Times, 13 January 1996, 13(L).
8. Bosley Crowther, review of Pride and Prejudice ,
dir. Robert Z. Leonard (MGM movie), New York Times 9 August 1940, p. 19, col. 1
20. Online source. Because electronic sources are developing so quickly, the style for citing them is still developing too. The basic principle, however, is to provide the author/ title/date information that would be provided for a print source and to provide enough”publication” information to retrieve the document. In addition, you should include the
date you accessed the information (indicated in Chicago style by the term “cited”) because online documents are often modified or updated.
9. Eric Johnson, "How Jane Austen's Characters Talk" (version 2.0 of TEXT Technology: The Journal of Computer Text Processing 4 [Winter 1994]: 263-67), in Jane Austen Information Page [home page; cited 21 May 1996]; available from http://www.dsu.edu/~johnsone/
21. Film, videorecording, or other visual material .Because there are so many kinds of visual materials (not only movies on cassette, but also films and slides), one rule cannot cover them all. The citation note should provide whatever information is necessary to describe the source, to indicate its relevance to the researcher, and to retrieve it.
1. Pride and Prejudice , directed by Robert Z. Leonard, produced by Hunt Stromberg, starring Greer Garson and Laurence Olivier, MGM/UA, 1940, videocassette.
22. Sound recording. The entry for a record, tape, or compact disc (spelled disk by CMS) usually begins with the name of the composer. Collections or anonymous works begin with the title. Underline or italicize the title of a recording; enclose the name of a selection in quotation marks. The name of the performer usually follows the title; if the
purpose of the citation is to emphasize the performer, however, the entry may begin with the performer’s name. For publication information, use the name of the recording company and the number of the recording. Other information—such as copyright date and kind of recording—may be added.
2. Joaquin Rodrigo, "Concierto de Aranjuez," on R odrigo: Conciertos , Pepe Romero and Academy of St. Martin in the Fields, Sir Neville Harriner, Philips compact disk 432 828-2.
23. Public document. Citations for printed public documents should generally include the country, state, or other government division issuing the document (unless all the documents being cited are issued by the same government); the legislative body, executive department, court, or agency (including the name of any subsidiary division);
the title of the document (underlined or italicized); the name of the author or editor, if given; the report number or other identification necessary to locate the document; the publisher if different from the issuing body; the date; and the page number, unless the entire work is being cited. If you are citing a large number of public documents, you
may find it helpful to consult The Chicago Manual for its many examples.
3. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Negro Population 1790-1915 (Washington, D.C., 1918) .
24. Legal reference. A note for a decision by a federal court begins with the title of the case (Chicago Manual says to underline or italicize it; Turabian says to underline or italicize it only in the text). The source is identified by volume number, the abbreviated title of the official court report (in the example below, ” U.S. ” stands for United States Supreme Court Reports), and the page number. In the first note citing the decision, include the year in parentheses. Federal court decisions are usually cited only in the text o r notes and not in the bibliography If your paper has many legal citations, consult The University of Chicago Manual of Legal Citation (1989) or The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, 15th ed. (Harvard Law Review Association).
4. Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
25. Unpublished dissertation or thesis. The title is enclosed in quotation marks. The work is identified as dissertation or thesis in the parentheses enclosing the publication information, which consists of the name of the college or university and the date.
5. James Hugo Johnston, "Race Relations in Virginia and Miscegenation in the South, 1776-1860" (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1937).
26. Personal communication. Citations for information gained in personal conversations or by letter, e-mail, or telephone may be included in the text, in informal notes, or in more formal ones. Because personal communications are not usually available to the public, they do not need to be included in a bibliography.
6. Theodore Thomas informed me by telephone in January 1995 that the film had been seven years in the making.
6. Theodore Thomas, telephone conversation with author, 10 January 1995.
27. Secondary source. Include publication information both for the primary source (if that information is available) and for the secondary source. If the purpose of the note is to indicate where you found the primary-source information, list the primary source first. If, however, you are focusing on the secondary source’s quoting of the primary source, start the note with the secondary source.
7. Burr Cartwright Brundage, Lords of Cuzco : A History and Description of the Inca People in Their Final Days (Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967), 160, quoted in John Felstiner, Translating Neruda: The Way to Macchu Picchu (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1980), 264.
7. John Felstiner, Translating Neruda: The Way to Macchu Picchu (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1980), 264, quoting Burr Cartwright Brundage, Lords of Cuzco: A History and Description of the Inca People in Their Final Days (Norman, Okla. : University of Oklahoma Press, 1967), 160.
CMS Shortened Notes
The first time a source is cited, the note should contain complete publication information, as shown in the preceding examples. Subsequent references to a source, however, may be shortened, using only the last name of the author (or authors) and the page reference, (if two or more authors have the same last name, use their initials or first names in all notes.) The title of the work should be included in long papers, such as theses and dissertations, but is necessary in shorter papers only if two or more works by the same author are cited. A long title may be shortened to a key phrase in the title.
1. Shortened reference to a book.
1. Roy, 125.
1. Roy, Frontier Women, 12 5.
2. Shortened reference to a part of a book. If the source needs to be named, use the title of the chapter or selection but not the tide of the book.
2. Garrard, "Parties, Members and Voters," 145.
3. Shortened reference to an article. If the source need to be named, use the article title but not the name of the periodical.
3. Dunbar-Nelson, "People," 78.
If the article is not signed, use the article title, or a shortened version of it.
4. "Garrison Predicts Success," 2.
4. “Ibid.” for successive references to the same source. If there are two or more notes in a row to the same page of the same work, the abbreviation “ibid.” (short from the Latin ibidem, meaning “in the same place”) may be used for the second and subsequent notes.
However, if the note is to a different page in the work, use ”ibid.” and the page number.
6. Ibid., 130.