- Posted by: essay
- Category: Free essays
Exchange Theory by Peter Blau. Peter Blau introduced the analysis of exchange, which processes the term “marginal utility”, which says that “the more the expected rewards entity obtains from a particular act, the less valuable this action is, and the less likely it will be”. The idea is that if in a result of the exercise we get some action on the awards, you will have less value, which will be a new round of the award. Another concept introduced by Blau is the concept of “standards for fair exchange”, which indicates what should be the ratio of rewards to costs in the exchange relationship. If these standards are shaken, then the injured party may disclose to aggressive behavior. Blau concept differs from the concept of Homans that provides conflict situations. Balance in one relationship, which is impaired by homeostasis seen in another. Blau has another concept, which is “social attraction” that is the perception of opportunities for reward. This is according to sociologist factor, necessary for the existence of the exchange ratio, which is based on the belief that people who “give awards, in turn, you will receive the award as payment for the goods delivered”. There are four types (classes): the prize money, social acceptance, respect (deference) and submission. Of these, the greatest value is the submission, then the respect, acceptance, and the least appropriate reward in the relations of social exchange is money.
Submission is the most valuable prize because for Blau it is inherent in the relationship of power, and this in turn gives a possibility of denying rewards to those who do not want to comply with the standards. Power is born when the value of services exceeds the value of services received in return. If people have to choose only one or a few alternative sources of awards, then it also comes to forcing submission. This is further facilitated if people are not giving to the possibility to use the coercion and opposition to a person providing services. Inability to work around without data prizes also affects positively the opportunity to force the submission by the person in possession of these awards.
Exchange in social psychology. Social psychology also speaks about human relations as relations of exchange. These systems are based on the so-called rule of reciprocity, under which “we are committed to the future for favors, gifts, invitations and the goods that we have received.” According to social psychologists one of the important principles is governing the human investigation. This commitment to the rematch probably exists in all human societies. Researchers say that this rule has developed in order to encourage people to contact, based on mutual exchange of services – without fear of giving something to another, and we lose it forever. Another form of this rule is called reciprocal concessions, namely: if someone goes to hand us, we do it to him, too. Thus we can safely take the first step to someone, as he will be obliged to give us a similar sacrifice. This rule is valid according to social psychologists and it is an effective regulator of social relations.