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Conflicts of individualistic and social exchange in collectivism. Conflict that occurs is a result of the growing contradiction between the individualistic orientation and collectivism. Homans is probably someone who was very stressed on an individualistic approach to the development of social theory. This is certainly different from the explanation that the Levi-Strauss, a collectivist, in issues especially regarding to marriage and kinship patterns. Levi-Strauss is an anthropologist who comes from France. He developed a theoretical perspective of social exchange on the practice of marriage and kinship system of primitive societies. A general pattern of analysis is when a man marries his mother’s daughter. A pattern that happens is that people rarely marry the daughter of his father’s brother. This latter pattern was analyzed further by Bronislaw Malinowski, who advanced by the exchange of nonmaterial. In explaining this, Levi-Strauss distinguishes two exchange systems, which include restricted and generalized exchange. In restricted exchange, members of the dyad groups are directly involved in the exchange transaction, each member of the couple give each other a personal basis. And in the generalized exchange, members of a group of triads or even larger accept something other than a dyad who gives something useful. In these exchanges the impact is on the integration and solidarity groups are in a more effective manner. The main purpose of this exchange process is not to allow couples who are involved in an exchange to meet the needs of individualization. An analysis of marriage and kinship behavior is a criticism of Sir James Frazer’s explanation of a British expert who studies the economic anthropology on patterns of exchange that occurs between mating pairs in primitive society.
The theory of exchange today does not represent a single school of thought. Strictly speaking, there are several theories that share a common position that human interaction is a process of exchange. In addition, each of them has their own views on human nature, society and social science. Theories of exchange have been and still are often criticized for the lack of freshness, the evidence of certain statements, ignoring the existence of a forced situation. Most can be found with the view that this point of view narrows the social life and relations between people only to the physical assets. As a fact, social forms of exchange are perceived differently and communicated, as a sociological and anthropological analysis would be expected to. As the question of justice, including equivalence of an exchange is directed according to dominant values, or it is judged differently from the representatives of warring values.
Blau, Peter (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley. Web. 23 September 2010.