- Posted by: essay
- Category: Free essays
Most organizations have three levels of management: top, middle and bottom. Managers at each level perform the same function. The only difference is the value which they provide for a particular function. Top managers are paid to planning and organization longer than the heads of the lower levels. Top managers of medium and large organizations focus on planning for the future, setting goals, determining a course of action, rules and procedures for their implementation. The ways in which management policies are influenced by environment factors include the circumstances caused by the decisions that are in tight connection with the external factors. Dependence on the situations that can affect the management policy, as is has a certain risk. When a company has different connections and takes a considerable risk, it can be influenced by the environment factors. To prevent it, there should be made a careful research to understand the risks and the possible consequences and dependence of the external factors. Today, managers are responsible for the prosperity of the organization and therefore need to plan, direct and control its activities. Manager of middle level management controls and works more time than top managers. Managers of mid-level department heads and departments should organize their work so that organizational objectives are achieved and the policy is carried out in life to recruit and retain good employees. They are responsible for managing the daily operations of their units. The mid-level managers are managers of shops, warehouses, and other leaders. Lower level management – is the level of officials who directly manage the work of their subordinates. Lower-level manager position include: master, foreman, team manager, agent for the supply, freight forwarder. Lower-level manager spends most of his time on motivation and control of subordinates. At this level management functions of planning and organization are less important for the manager than the controls and motivation. Yet most managers perform all four functions of management.
Criteria for effective management. A manager manages people using the principles to support in the lower self-esteem. First a manager praises a subordinate and only then – to give guidance on improvement works; attention to issues and not personalities; increased use of methods of reinforcement of positive reactions to the desired action or negative – on undesirable. Managers should respond immediately on the change of people’s behavior because the delayed reaction causes unnecessary confusion; nomination of clear requirements, support for constant contact with people of strong feedback. Based on these principles, the manager should seek in the subordinate the desired results: suggest those who have trouble only in the prompt; give advice to those who need to be continually mentored, advised, inspired to action; give direct instructions to remind of the need to act unready; in categorically tell, hard to enforce on those who ignores advice, guidance, recommendations; dismissed, if no other way to get people to obey, and, conversely, encouraged by the faithful execution of all instructions in the head. How and with whom to work – depends largely on the peculiarities of human nature, not only employees but also managers. This point manager must consider himself.
Production management at any level is a complicated process. Outside the firm manager must constantly fight for the market share, to anticipate customer requirements, provide accurate delivery times, all to produce products of higher quality, set prices according to the conditions of competition and in every possible way to take care of maintaining the firm’s reputation among consumers. Within the firm, he must seek productivity gained through better planning, better organization and automation of manufacturing processes. Simultaneously, a manager must consider the requirements of trade unions to maintain its competitive position in the market, to provide dividends to shareholders at a level so as not to lose their confidence, and leave a sufficient amount of retained earnings to ensure its growth. An important task of management is to join the integration of all parties and aspects of the organization and the areas of their private purposes, in order to achieve the overall objective of this system.
Control theory applies the scientific methods of analysis to develop specific methods and recommendations for management practices. However, these methods and recommendations are not prescriptions, they cannot be absolute. Effective use of these methods and recommendations is based on a combination of specific circumstances and conditions. For example, the Japanese experience in the use of quality circles has not been found widespread used in American industry because of different social relations in the workplace. Therefore, one important condition for effective control (for example, achieving the organization’s objectives at minimum cost) is adequate (compliance) of the methods of management of external and internal environment of the organization’s functioning.