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The famous philosopher Derrida asserts that the European ideal of full mastering by true carries the aggressive and sexually painted character. There were radical changes in style and methods of intellectual activity. First of all, the questions of true and knowledge substantiation began to be solved, in a new way.
The interpretive reason has redirected search of the bases of knowledge from transcendental subjectivity on daily-ordinary vital practice. Knowledge has been based not on metaphysics, and on a communication and a dialogue. Dialogue is a meeting of subjectivity with subjectivity. Subjectivity is self-sufficient.
The interpretive reason refuses to work in system of categories of scientific thinking: true, essence, law, the basis, the reason, objectivity etc
According to Gadamer the process of disclosing of true sense is infinite. There is no criterion of true interpretation. The daily occurrence is a natural installation, the actual life of the subject including all spectrums of its personal preferences. The subject appears a starting point of philosophical judgement of social problems with all variety of its requirements and interests.
Declaring search of true by a false problem, the interpretive reason began to search for the rules of intellectual activity, styles of expression of thinking in a word. It asserts that verbally-language expression of thought is always casual. Refusal is connected with change of rules and norms of intellectual activity in art from realism and from the naturalistic image of the world.
The knowledge is not a science which though cannot black out a problem of legitimacy of knowledge, forces us to put this problem in all its political completeness.
People have changed their attitude and their sincerely spiritually-intellectual installations.
Many thinkers have resorted to an extrapolation method. It was possible to draw a socially-psychological portrait of individual ХХ of century.
Russian thinker Smirnov I. foretold that the processes of the liberalisations which have begun in Europe and which have led to strengthening of the tendency of the requirement of any equality – economic, political, intellectual, sexual etc., and also to freethinking increase in a society, condescension and connivance concerning any individual wills, will generate in total special type: self-confident and arrogant citizens. Democratisation of a life and minds will inevitably end with middle class domination, i.e. modest, homogeneous mind of the people very few working and happy in similarity. “The average” person focused on momentary requirements will be developed, on infinite upholding of the rights and freedom, the nature and essence which he does not know. «Average »the person will generate ethics, free from any mystical, religious beginnings, and will be assured that disclosing of feeling of its own advantage will be promoted by aspiration to luxury and riches.
He also considers that liberal democracy and techniques have created the special type of a person who has been not impregnated with spirit of traditions. The modern European lays claim on the unlimited rights and does not think at all of a debt, duties. Two lines are inherent in the “average” European: infinite growth of vital inquiries and a congenital ingratitude to that has facilitated his life.
Other Russian thinker of XIX century Dianova V. named Europe «a civilisation young». Its main feature he saw that sons human have removed from themselves duties before fathers, ancestors, i.e. before tradition, have kept away from them in the arrogance, have ceased to reckon past. They have forgotten the filial debt. The epoch of new time has generated the people who have refused God.
In “civilisations young” bent for to fast and sharp change of vital events and processes has found by end ХХ century an exit in those spheres of life which have no direct relation to the social device. The fashion industries, which rates of change often surpass reasonable opportunities of manufacture and in general common sense.
Musical rhythms, which frequency multiplied by improbably high level of decibel, do their not commensurate with rhythms not only a human body, but also a space as a whole. On radical changes postmodernist “the civilisation young” has concentrated speed and an impact, installation in the cultural space connected with a body and its requirements. There was even a technology “body building”, plastic surgery. With the help of plastic surgery people could have a great opportunity to change a figure, colour of eyes, a skin and even a sex.
The cult of a body, its desires, requirements and instincts is correlated with the characteristic of the person of new type, as the strong and furious neon mad aimed only on benefit and extraction, dethroning all temples and religions in the soul.
The neopaganism of end ХХ century has reproduced century all set of corresponding ritual actions, having given them the modern form: bloody sacrifices, physical violence, sensuality and sex consecration etc. Vulgarizing a problem, it is possible to tell that the paganism knows the person only in that its part that below heart, spirit, soul, intelligence.
The night erotic, pornographic teleprograms have incurred original function of organizers of mass orgies on manners but with incomparable a great number of participants.
So, the culture of post-modern was reflexion of the deepest shifts, which happened in outlook of Europeans. M. Heidegger named this phenomenon «onto-logic nihilism».
According to Heidegger this “nihilism” has accepted world-wide and historical scales and many people of new time are involved in the process of “ontologic smallness”.
The game and the case become the world outlook dominants in our modern life and culture. All turns to belief: a business, commerce, policy, human relations in general, the man and the woman in particular.
The mass post-modernist culture has been descended from TV and from pages of magazines.
Despite of the primitiveness rigidly realises inherent in a post-modern as a whole a discourse which is based on aggressive and an uncooperative altitude to the past. The TV is the main distributor of stereotypes of thinking. It not only generates them, but also strengthens influence on mass consciousness. The TV is the incapable of self-criticism because there is no direct reaction of public, as in theatrical representation.
There was an opinion about the masked character of a public life and ways of its perception among the western theorists when a policy, economy in its advertising appearance, commercialised art were transformed into the universal show-business.
There was an actual Shakespearean maxim “The world is a theatre” owing to such state of affairs and a creation of the new theory of theatre became an equivalent to a creation of the theory of a society.
The mass-media use means of technological reproduction. A film and video uniqueness, constancy, transcendence has given way to pluralism and anonymities in such reproduced art forms. The modern TV is included by two worlds like a mass culture and vanguard culture of minority. If the previous epoch demanded and reproduced a set of the connected and equivalent contrasts between a private and public life, between subjective “I” and the objective world presently these relations are neutralised in such a manner that the concept of “person” has given way to flat interchangeable equivalence of the subject and object.