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There are several steps in the process of human trafficking (including trafficking in minors): recruitment, transportation, exploitation (Quirk, 2007).
Recruitment involves fraud or coercion of a person – this is the first link in the chain of trafficking. Recruiters conduct the first contact with victims, give false promises and hopes. Sometimes the victim knows what he/she will be doing in the future, but has no idea about the conditions. Also, there are situations where the victim is unaware that he/she will be forced to perform an entirely different work from what is expected.
Recruiters may be hiding under the guise of such organizations as (Aronowitz, 2001):
– Modeling agencies
– Employment agencies (inside and outside the country)
– International dating services
– International student exchange clubs
– Language courses abroad
– Travel agencies
Recruiters can often be people whom we trust: friends, relatives, neighbors and even parents. It happens that the recruiter is difficult to distinguish from an honest agent, and if you are faced with such a man promising that soon your life will miraculously change, a special care and thorough inspection of all the promises is necessary. And it is better to consult with the professionals (Quirk, 2007; Shelley, 2010).
The methods of recruitment of trafficking victims, above all, include newspaper ads. Noticeably, such ads contain no requirements for language proficiency and professional skills, but refer to the outlook; no mention of the name, occupation and address of the company, only mobile number is given.
Another method is called “second wave”: women trafficked before return home to recruit the followers. Victims of trafficking are often ready to become a pimp, only to get rid of violence. Many went abroad on the advice of their friends who told them about the wonderful work (Shelley, 2010).
The third method of recruitment is through public events, such as photo or beauty contests. In addition to these, there are many other ways: inviting casual acquaintances, travel on tourist visas, marriage announcements, engaging in sexual slavery through the Internet, etc.
Transportation involves transferring people from one place to another, but the crossing of state borders is not a prerequisite. Victims are often subjected to physical and sexual abuse along the way to the final destination, often resold and exploited at the time of transportation.
Traffickers often take care of all travel costs (visa charges, tickets, etc.), but then at the destination place demand that the money should be worked out, thus forcing people into prostitution or exploiting their labor.
Exploitation contains the main purpose of trafficking.
Among the most common forms of exploitation are forced labor, sexual, or other services.
The means of placing a person into dependence include (Quirk, 2007; Shelley, 2010):
– Deprivation of liberty of action and disposal of the results of one’s labor;
– Debt bondage – the victims of forced to work out the money traders paid for them;
– Isolation – withdrawal and withholding of documents, restrictions on freedom of movement, communication with loved ones;
– Forcing to work without an employment contract, long hours, with greater intensity, an illegal ban on the dismissal (employee retention); handling personnel (transfer to another employer without the employee’s consent, use for other works without consent of the employee, etc.);
– Physical violence – the victims are beat and raped to make them do what traffickers need;
– Compulsion to use alcohol and drugs, injections of sedatives;
– Verbal abuse;
– Threats of physical punishment;
– Blackmail – after the forced prostitution or pornography, the victims are blackmailed, being threatened to inform the relatives of the victim about what she was doing; threats of deportation for illegal immigrants;