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The study focused on the research of the impact of performance coaching on the improvement of the individual performance. The study involved specialists working in the field of coaching, managers, employees and experts to assess the impact of coaching on the improvement of the individual performance and to define the strategies of the effective coaching which can lead to the improvement of the individual performance of employees. In addition, the study involved the research of the case study of Standard Bank of South Africa as one of the companies using coaching successfully. One of the managers of the Standard Bank of South Africa was accessed online and provided detailed information concerning the current research and the bank in the course of the online interview authorized by the management of the bank.
4.2 Rationale for the Methodology
The use of methodology is justified by the importance of revelation of qualitative impact of coaching on employees’ performance and organizational performance. The use of interviews and questionnaires helps to conduct the in-depth study of the problem of correlation between coaching and improvement of employees’ performance, whereas the case study gives empirical data on the correlation between coaching and employees’ performance.
4.3 Research Design
The research involved the use of interviews and questionnaires. Interviews were conducted face-to-face, online and through phone. Questionnaires were conducted online. The information was collected and processed by the researcher. In addition, the findings obtained from interviews and questionnaires were backed up by the analysis of the case study. The case study was obtained from a manager of the Standard Bank of South Africa.custom term paper
4.4 Research Strategy
The research strategy focused on the use of qualitative methods of analysis along with the case study. The strategy of the current research involved the use of interviews, questionnaires and case study, which allowed collecting information on the relationship between coaching and individual performance of employees. In such a way, the results were obtained from the analysis of empirical data.
4.5 Target Population
The following were samples of the subject types/stakeholder groups
Table 2. Subjects of the study
Subject Category No. of Males Subjects No. of Female Subjects Total Sample
Coaches (6) Males (5) Females ages 27-49 11
Managers (5) Males (5) Females ages 26- 52 holding different positions in organisational hierarchies 10
Employees (4) Males (6) Females ages 22-54 performing tasks of different complexity and with different responsibilities 10
Experts (working in different fields relating to human resource management, coaching, psychology, education and business administration) (3) Males (2) Females ages 31-40 5
The above audience was chosen due to their ability in terms of work, profession and experience to offer conducive feedback in coaching and its impact on performance.
4.6 Research instruments
On researching the problem of the impact of coaching on the improvement of the individual performance, it is important to use effective methods of the qualitative analysis. In this regard, interviews are very helpful because they allow researchers to conduct the qualitative analysis and to reveal the opinion of experts and different professionals as well as all stakeholders involved in the study and directly or indirectly involved in or affected by coaching. Interviews were conducted face-to-face and online. Sixty percent of interviews were conducted face-to-face, whereas 40% of interviews were conducted online. Questions were prepared to reveal the impact of coaching on the improvement of the individual performance and, at the same time, in the course of interviews possible recommendations or comments of respondents on the effectiveness of coaching were collected. In such a way, the detailed information on the impact and effectiveness of coaching was collected in the course of interviews, whereas respondents got ample opportunities to express their opinion about coaching, its effectiveness and possible improvements.
Interviews were conducted to reveal the role of coaching and its possible effects on employees’ performance. In this regard, it is important to place emphasis on the fact that interviews involved coaches, managers and coachees. Coaches were posed the following questions in the course of the interview:
1. What is your experience of coaching?
2. What are the main characteristics of a good coach?
3. What are the major problem coaches face in their work?
4. What is your favourite method or methods of coaching?
5. Do you feel the influence of the organization ordering coaching on your wok?
6. Do you consider your coaching is effective? Why?
7. Can coaching affect employees’ performance?
8. How coaching can improve employees’ performance?
9. Do you need training or expansion your professional knowledge to coach effectively?
10. Do you consider essential for modern organizations?
11. What are goals of your coaching?
All these questions aimed at the revelation of the attitude of coaches to the process of coaching and its impact on coachees’ performance. At the same time, questions posed to coaches focused on the definition of key characteristics coaches should posses to make the process of coaching effective. In addition, the interview attempted to reveal problems coaches face in their work and in the course of coaching. At this point, it was particularly important to reveal possible problems coaches could have with coachees as well as with organizations that employed them to conduct the coaching process. In this regard, it is worth mentioning the fact that questions posed in the course of the interview was closely intertwined with each other and some questions were posed to reveal the extent to which coaches were sincere and responsible, while answering the questions. At the same time, it should be said that, in the course of the interview, each coach could answer specific questions which raised and the researcher needed to precise them. Nevertheless, the general line of the interview was maintained to collect the data and process it in the course of the study. In addition, coaches could share their views and ideas concerning the effects of their work on employees and outcomes of coaching on employees’ performance. In such a way, the position of coaches concerning the impact of coaching on employees work and performance was supposed to be obtained in the study.
Along with coaches, it was necessary to interview managers because managers organized and planed the work of employees, including coaching process. What is meant here is the fact that managers are responsible for the positive performance of employees and they plan their work and coaching. Therefore, they should understand the importance of coaching and they can and do assess the effects of coaching, its effectiveness and outcomes of coaching in regard to employees’ performance as well as organizational performance at large. In the course of the current study, the following interview questions were posed to managers:
1. Does your organization order coaching services for your employees and managers?
2. What are principles of selection of a coach for your organization?
3. How you define employees, who need coaching?
4. What are the major goals of coaching for your organization?
5. How frequently you order coaching services for your employees?
6. Do you practice coaching within your organization without outsourcing coaching services?
7. Do you consider the sharing knowledge management being effective in the contemporary business environment?
8. What do you expect from coaching of your employees?
9. Have you noticed any significant improvements in the performance of your employees after coaching?
10. Do you consider coaching essential for your organization?
The questions posed to managers in the course of the interview were supposed to reveal the significance of coaching for modern organizations. To put it more precisely, it was important to find out how often coaching takes place within the organizations and what effects coaching has on the performance of employees from the standpoint of managers. Managers work with employees and they can notice any significant changes that occur to them in the course of their work.
Naturally, the study could not ignore the position of coachees because they are subjects to coaching and their position and views on coaching are important to reveal any effects coaching may potentially have on employees’ performance. The following interview questions were posed to coachees:
1. Have you ever participated in coaching?
2. What is your impression of coaching?
3. Why do you participate in coaching? Or Why would you participate in coaching?
4. Do your managers push on you to participate in coaching?
5. How many of your colleagues have been involved in coaching?
6. Do you find any improvements in their performance?
7. Have you noticed any improvements in your performance after coaching?
8. Did you have any difficulties or challenges in the course of coaching?
9. Did coaching have any negative effects on your performance or on you in person?
10. Do you consider coaching being essential for you and your organization?
All these questions were posed to reveal the effects of coaching on employees’ performance and their attitude to coaching. In this regard, it is important to place emphasis on the fact that employees were encouraged to critical thinking and evaluation of their own performance as well as performance of their colleagues involved in coaching. In such a way, respondents could provide their opinion on the effects of coaching. Anyway, the interview with coachees helps to reveal their attitude to coaching and its possible effects.
In addition, questionnaires were used in the current study. This method was used to extend the qualitative analysis of data collected in the course of the study. The main goal of the questionnaires was the same as the goal of the interviews. The major goal was to reveal effects of coaching and its possible positive impact on the individual performance of employees involved in coaching. The questionnaires were distributed in print and online. Respondents got sufficient time within which to answer the questions and to send responses back. The questionnaires were anonymous to increase the reliability of responses provided by the subjects of the study. Twenty-five percent (25%) of questionnaires were in print, whereas seventy-five (75%) of questionnaires were distributed online. The data were collected and processed on the computer to facilitate the analysis of the information collected in the course of the study
Similarly to interviews, questionnaires were also divided into three major groups depending on respondents, including a questionnaire for coaches, a questionnaire for managers and a questionnaire for coachees. The following questionnaire was offered for coaches:
1. How long have you been working as a coach:
a. Less than a year
b. From one to three years
c. Over three years
2. Do you consider your coaching being effective:
3. How would you define the effectiveness of your coaching:
a. Very effective
c. Barely effective
4. Do you consider discipline is important for positive effects of coaching:
5. Do you consider communication to be important for effective coaching:
6. Do you develop communication skills in your coaches:
7. Do your coachees need the development of organizational skills:
8. How often do you participate in coaching:
a. One a week
b. Once a month
c. Once a year
9. How would you define your qualification level:
10. What motivators do you prefer to use in your work:
The questionnaire was supposed to reveal the attitude of coaches to their work and effects of coaching on employees. The questionnaire aimed at the revelation of methods used by coaches in the course of training, effects of training, motivation of coachees and qualities coaches needed to develop in coachees.
Questionnaires involving managers were also important for the current research because managers could provide information concerning the organization of coaching, frequency of coaching and other information relevant to coaching and its impact on employees’ performance.
1. How often do you organize coaching for your employees?
a. Once a quarter
b. Once a year
c. One time in three years
2. Is coaching essential for your employees?
3. What is the goal of coaching for your organization?
a. To improve performance of employees
b. To improve performance of the organization
c. To improve both performance of employees and organization
4. How would you assess the effectiveness of coaching?
a. highly effective
5. What impact does coaching have on your employees’ performance?
c. No effect
6. Are your employees motivated to participate in coaching?
7. What skills are primary to your coaches?
8. How much coaching do your competitors use?
a. More than our organization
b. As much as our organization
c. Less than our organization
9. Do you implement the knowledge sharing management in your organization?
10. Is coaching essential for your organization?
The aforementioned questions help to reveal the attitude of modern organizations to coaching. To put it more precisely, the questionnaire is supposed to reveal the significance of coaching for modern organizations. In addition, the questionnaire helps to understand the goals of coaching from the standpoint of modern organizations. In such a way, the questionnaire involving managers reveals the view of organizations on coaching and its goals.
Naturally, the questionnaire for coachees was also extremely important for the current study. The following questions were posed in terms of the questionnaire for coachees:
1. How often are you involved in coaching?
a. Once a quarter
b. Once a year
c. One time in three years
2. Do you enjoy coaching?
3. What skills of a coach you consider to be the most effective?
4. What are your goals in coaching?
a. Improvement of my professional skills and abilities
b. Career growth and promotion
c. I just have fun while coaching
5. Are you motivated by your coach?
6. What motivators are the most important for you?
7. Does your organization motivate you to participate in coaching?
8. Have you noticed any effects of coaching in regard to your performance in the workplace?
a. Positive effects
b. Negative effects
c. No effects
9. Are you eager to participate in coaching?
10. What qualities or skills do you suppose to develop with the help of coaching?
11. Is coaching useful for your career growth?
The questionnaire for coachees focuses on the revelation of the attitude of coachees to coaching and its effects on their performance. At the same time, it is important to find out whether coachees are satisfied with coaching or not and how frequently coaching occurs in their work. However, the most important point in the questionnaire for coachees is the assessment of the effectiveness of coaching for their performance and outcomes of coaching in regard to their work.
4.7. Coaching models
The current study uses different models to reveal the impact of coaching on employee’s performance. the use of coaching models is helpful in terms of the development of effective approaches to human resource management and coaching. In fact, coaching models help to organize the coaching process respectively to organizational needs and goals of the coaching process.
Table 3. Coaching models
1) Classic Models – The 6 Levels of Coaching:-
One way of looking at different types of coaching intervention is to classify them as «Over here» or «Over there»:
• Over there interventions are those in which the coach uses what is going on for the coachee to help the coachee move forward – ie following the coachee’s interest by using what is «over there»
• Over here interventions are those in which the coach uses what is going on for them (the coach) to help the coachee pursue their agenda or achieve their goals – ie, using what is «over here», for example by sharing knowledge or giving feedback.
We can arrange these as interventions along a ascending path of increasingly complexity (see diagram).
On the coach training programmes I run at the School of Coaching (www.theschoolofcoaching.com), most of the participants come on the programmes already very comfortable with the Telling and Being Expert style of coaching (2). They are very familiar with using their own expertise and experience to tell others how to solve a problem or approach a task. This is an important skill, but one that has clear limits. For example, it can be demotivating and disempowering. But its most fundamental limitation is that it means that the coach can never coach someone who knows more than they do – to do this the coach has to learn to help the coachee use their own resources, for example by following the coachee’s interest (3). One way we do this at the School is by taking participants onto the tennis court for a day where they have the powerful, and often transformative, experience of successfully coaching a fellow participant to improve their tennis despite not only knowing nothing about tennis coaching, but in some cases despite having never played tennis before!
Only when an aspiring coach has mastered the ability to use the coachee’s experience to inform the coaching can they really start to use their own «over here» experience effectively. The next level of complexity is when the coach is able to use what they are observing and thinking to give feedback, to challenge, and to create and apply hypotheses (4).
This ability starts to sensitise the coach to the interests the coachee has which they are not expressing and which they may be unaware of. Following this implicit interest (5) requires a higher level of skill and sensitivity since it is more easy to get this wrong than when following the coachee’s explicitly stated interest.
The ability to discern the coachee’s implicit intent provides the basis for the next more complex level of intervention where there is scope for powerfully sharing our wisdom and insights (6). And there is the danger that, if we misjudge our intervention, we may deny the coachee the benefit of having the insight themselves.
And sometimes the most powerful thing we can do for our coachee’s – and the simplest – is to witness them and see them as they are (1).
As is usually the case with these multi-level models there is no one best intervention – that depends on what the moment calls for. But the more flexibility we can have in using the different interventions the more effective we can be as coaches.
2.)The 7 Eyed Supervision Model
Coaching Supervision is about ensuring high quality coaching provision and takes the form of ongoing meetings between the supervisor and the coach. With the increasing professionalisation of coaching and mentoring, the importance and role of coaching supervision has become a hot topic.
One way of looking at the process of supervision is provided by the 7-Eyed model. Originally developed for use with psychotherapists and counsellors, it is now being applied to coaching and mentoring. It specifies the 7 areas that supervision can focus on:
1. The Coachee System: The focus is on the coachee situation; the problem the coachee wants help with, how they present the issues and the choices that they are making.
2. The Coach’s Interventions: The focus is on the interventions the coach made, how and why they made them, and what else they might have done.
3. The Relationship between the Coach and Coachee: The focus is on neither the coach nor their coachee but on the conscious and unconscious interactions between the two of them so that the coach develops a better understanding of the dynamics of the coaching relationship.
4. The Coach: The focus is on the coach’s own experience as an instrument for registering what is happening beneath the surface of the coachee system.
5. The Parallel Process: The focus is on what the coach has absorbed from the coachee system and how it may be playing out in the relationship between coach and supervisor.
6. The Coaching Supervisor’s Self-reflection: The focus is the supervisor’s «here and now» experience with the coach and how this can be used to shed light on the coach/coachee relationship.
7. The Wider Context: The focus is on the wider organisational, social, cultural, ethical, and contractual context within which the supervision is taking place.
In focussing on areas 1-3, the supervision is concerned with reflecting on the coaching session itself – its content, the interventions made, and the dynamics of the coaching relationship.
In areas 4-6, the supervision is concerned with the coaching session as it is reflected in the here and now experience of the supervision session.
The value of this model is that it maps the areas that supervision can focus on, making it easier to ensure that we have covered the ground. And by changing the labels in the diagram above, we can equally well use it as a model for what we can focus on in a coaching session!
More on this model and coaching supervision in general in Coaching, Mentoring and Consultancy: Polishing the Professional Mirror by Peter Hawkins and Nick Smith.
• Contracting: Opening the discussion, setting the scope, establishing the desired outcomes, and agreeing the ground rules.
• Listening: Using active listening and catalytic interventions the coach helps the coachee develop their understanding of the situation and generate personal insight.
• Exploring 1: Helping the coachee to understand the personal impact the situation is having on themselves. Exploring 2: Challenging the coachee to think through possibilities for future action in resolving the situation.
• Action: Supporting the coachee in choosing a way ahead and deciding the next step.
• Review: Closing the intervention, reinforcing ground covered, decisions made and value added. The coach also encourages feedback from the client on what was helpful about the coaching process, what was difficult and what they would like to be different in future coaching sessions.
Source: Hawkins, P & Smith, N. (2006). Coaching, Mentoring and Organizational Consultancy: Supervision and Development: Open University Press.
4.8 Data analysis
The data analysis included the analysis of information obtained in the result of interviews and questionnaires. This analysis was backed up by the case study of the Standard Bank of South Africa. The qualitative analysis contributed to the adequate understanding of the relationship between coaching and individual performance. The data analysis is a very important part of the study which is grounded on the analysis of the information and data collected in the course of the research. The data analysis includes the analysis of interviews and questionnaires conducted in the course of the study. Basically, the current study focuses on the use of qualitative methods of analysis. Therefore, the collected information was processed and analyzed by the researcher to find out the possible impact of coaching on the improvement of employees’ performance. At this point, the analysis of interviews and questionnaires is very important because it is through this analysis it is possible to find out key trends and effects of coaching on employees’ performance. At the same time, the data analysis reveals the fact whether the hypothesis developed by the researcher was right or wrong and the extent to which the original hypothesis was right, if right at all. Anyway, the data analysis is an essential stage in the current study because the data analysis leads to the revelation of the major findings of the study. At this point, the risk of error is extremely dangerous for the overall reliability and validity of the study and its findings. What is meant here is the fact that an error made in the course of the data analysis may provoke misleading results of the study, even if the information used in the study was collected properly. Therefore, the prevention of errors is extremely important. For this purpose, the data collected in terms of the current study were collected on one computer and processed several times to prove that there remains no margin for error. In such a way, the risk of errors at the stage of the data analysis was minimized. At the same time, the data analysis is just a stage in the study because it is also important to interpret the findings of the study. At this point, the data alone are not enough but the background knowledge of the researcher and the experience of the researcher as well as the analysis of other studies conducted by different researchers are very helpful because they allow to interpret findings of the study and data adequately and objectively with the minimal risk of the subjective interpretation of the findings of the current study.
4.9 Validity and reliability
The validity and reliability of the study is high due to the use of reliable methods of analysis, including the analysis of interviews and questionnaires. The validity of the study was tested using t-test and null hypothesis. The reliability of the study is grounded on the use of reliable resources and subjects involved in the study. The validity and reliability of the study was checked with the help of the t-test, which involved all the subjects interviewed in the course of the study and responding to the questionnaires. In such a way, with the help of the t-test, the study revealed the extent to which responses obtained in the course of the study were true and sincere. At the same time, it is necessary to admit certain degree of subjectivity of responses because it is hardly possible to avoid certain subjectivity in the course of interviews and questionnaires and obtain absolutely objective results. In such a situation, the involvement of the larger number of subjects could be helpful because the study would receive a larger scope of responses and wider diversity of responses in the course of interviews, in particular.
The study has some limitations, including the lack of subjects and a low number of face-to-face interviews. In addition, the study lacks the involvement of a larger number of subjects, which could contribute to the wider scope of the study and reveal more facts about the relationships between coaching and individual performance. Hence, one of the major limitations of the study is certain subjectivity of responses obtained from the subjects in the result of interviews and questionnaires. At this point, it is important to place emphasis on the fact that the findings of the study depend on the objectivity of responses, which though can hardly be reached because each individual involved in the study has his or her own vision of the problem of the impact of coaching on employees’ performance. On the other hand, it is important to stress that the degree of subjectivity is insignificant compared to the general trends revealed in the course of the study because many responses matched each other or were quite similar to each other. In addition, questionnaires helped to decrease the degree of subjectivity since subjects of the study had to choose either option in their responses to questions set in the questionnaires.
4.11 Ethical considerations
The study involves some ethical issues such as the moral impact of coaching on coachees. In fact, coaching may be offensive for employees, if coaches fail to find the individual approach to coachees and understand their needs, cultural traditions moral norms and standards. In actuality, ethical considerations can hardly be underestimated because they can have a significant impact on the findings of the study, its outcomes and effects on the further research studies in the field of the impact of coaching on employees’ performance. Today, ethics plays an important part in functioning of modern organizations. Therefore, it is impossible to ignore ethical considerations in the current study because coaching is a very responsible process. Coaches are responsible for their coachees and the current study should not affect coaches and coachees. Their values, moral norms and standards should remain untouched by the current study. At the same time, the study is conducted on terms of anonymity. This means that the subjects did not reveal their full names. They could provide their first name or they could provide the researcher with a fancied name if they liked but they had to respond to questions sincerely and honestly. In such a way, the maximum positive effect of the interviews and questionnaires was reached because they were conducted in a positive atmosphere with minimal affection of ethical issues. In this regard, the study was conducted properly to avoid the negative impact of the study on the further work of employees and subjects involved in the study. The observation of ethical norms and standards was one of the primary concerns in terms of the current study.